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The Egyptian gods are primeval forces that were once worshiped by the Ancient Egyptians. The gods are also created entities, like humans, but are much more powerful. They serve as a bridge between the natural world and the human world. Over time, the Egyptians realized that the gods were not to be worshiped and although they still prayed to them and used their powers, magicians began to train to fight the gods when needed.
Khnum, Isis & Nephthys - History
Potter God of the Inundation Silt and Creation
Ram headed God - Lord of the Cataract
God of fecundity and creation from the Cataract area.
Khnum (Khenmew, Khnemu, Khenmu, Chnum), from the Egyptian 'unite', 'join' or 'build', was an ancient deity of fertility, water and the great potter who created children and their ka at their conception. He was mentioned in the pyramid texts and the pyramid builder Khufu's name was actually 'Khnum-Khufu' meaning 'Khnum is his Protector'. His cult was popular before the cult of Ra eclipsed it. The next pyramid builders were his son and grandson who added 'Ra' to their names - Khafra and Menkaura. Khnum was possibly even a predynastic god. The Egyptians believed that he was the guardian of the source of the Nile who was originally a Nile god, but who became a helper of Hapi.
His role changed from river god to the one who made sure that the right amount of silt was released into the water during the inundation. In working with the silt, the very soil that the ancient Egyptian potters used, he became the great potter who not only molded men and women, but who molded the gods themselves and the world.
He was depicted as a ram, ram-headed man or as a full male with the horns of a ram who wears a plumed white crown of Upper Egypt. In early times he was shown as the first domesticated ram, the Ovis longipes palaeoaegyptiacus, with long corkscrew horns growing horizontally outwards from his head. This species died out, though even so he was still depicted as that breed of sheep until much later in Egyptian history. Eventually he was shown as the Ovis platyra (the type of ram associated with Amen) with horns curving inward towards his face. Sometimes he was shown with four ram heads, aligning him with the sun god Ra, the air god Shu, the earth god Geb and Osiris, lord of the dead. In his four headed form, he was known as Sheft-hat. The Egyptians believed that the ram was a very potent animal, and thus Khnum was linked to fertility.
Considered to be the ba of Ra - this might be an Egyptian pun on the fact that the ram was also called ba - he helped Ra travel through the underworld each night on the Solar Barque. In the pyramid texts (Utterance 300), the barque was referred to as the "Ikhet Barque which Khnum made", so not only did he defend the barque, but Khnum was thought to have created it as well. In this form he was often called Khnum-Ra and wears the sun disk of Ra.
Originally a water god, Khnum was often pictured by the Egyptians as the source of the Nile. On temple walls, he was sometimes shown as holding a jar, with the precious water flowing out of it. He was also believed to be a guardian of the waters in the underworld. He is mentioned as a protective deity of the dead. Many heart scarabs have a similar versions of one of the spells from The Book of the Dead to protect the deceased against a negative judgement in the Halls of Ma'at.
O my heart .
Do not stand up against me as a witness!
Do not create opposition against me among the assessors!
Do not tip the scales against me in the presence of the Keeper of the Balance!
You are my soul which is in my body,
The god Khnum who makes my limbs sound.
When you go forth to the Hereafter,
My name shall not stink to the courtiers who create people on his behalf.
Do not tell lies about me in the presence of the Great God!
- Heart scarab spell, translation by Thomas J. Logan
The ram-headed god was 'Lord of the Cataract' a god of the yearly inundation and the fertile black soil that came with the flood. Khnum was also seen as a fertility god because of his association with the fertile silt. Pottery was created out of the soil of the Nile, and it was believed that he created the first humans - and the gods - on his potter's wheel with this silt. In Iunyt (Esna) it was believed that it was he who molded the First Egg from which the sun hatched, and thus was a creator god who was 'Father of the Fathers of the Gods and Goddesses, Lord of Created Things from Himself, Maker of Heaven and Earth and the Duat and Water and the Mountains'.
The vast majority of the pottery was manufactured from either Nile silts or marl clays, the two primary raw materials used in Egyptian pottery making . Marl clays and Nile silts were usually not used for the same pot types. For example, cooking pots, cups, platter bowls, ring stands, Tell el-Yehudiyah ware juglets, black and red polished juglets, beakers, and certain groups of jars were produced mostly from Nile silts . platter bowls formed of marl clay were usually slipped red to provide the desired exterior look of a Nile silt a carinated bowl manufactured from silt might be slipped white to resemble a marl clay.
- Ethnicity, Pottery, and the Hyksos at Tell El-Maskhuta in the Egyptian Delta, Carol A. Redmount
The Famine Stele at Sehel island tells of a dream that Djoser supposedly had. Egypt had been going through a seven year drought and a temple had been built to Khnum in the hopes that the famine would end:
When I was asleep, my heart was in life and happiness. I found the god standing. I caused him pleasure by worshiping and adoring him. He made himself known to me and said: "I am Khnum, your creator, my arms are around you, to steady your body, to safeguard your limbs. I bestow on you ores with precious stones existing since antiquity that were not worked before to build temples, rebuild ruins, sculpt chapels for his master. I am master of creation. I have created myself, the great ocean which came into being in past times, according to whose pleasure the Nile rises. For I am the master who makes, I am he who makes himself exalted in Nun, who first came forth, Hapi who hurries at will fashioner of everybody, guide of each man to their hour.
I am Tatenen, father of Gods, the great Shu living on the shore. The two caves are in a trench below me. It is up to me to let loose the well. I know the Nile, urge him to the field, I urge him, life appears in every nose. As one urges to the field . I will make the Nile swell for you, without there being a year of lack and exhaustion in the whole land, so the plants will flourish, bending under their fruit. Renenutet is in all things everything will be brought forth by the million and everybody . in whose granary there had been dearth. The land of Egypt is beginning to stir again, the shores are shining wonderfully, and wealth and well-being dwell with them, as it had been before.
Then I awoke happy, my heart was decided and at ease. I decreed this order to the temple of my father Khnum. Royal sacrifice for Khnum-Re, lord of the cataract, first of Nubia, as reward for what you favour me with. I make you a gift of your western shore by the mountain of the dusk and your eastern shore by the mountain of dawn, from Elephantine to . with twelve auroras on the eastern and western shores, with the plants, with the harbours with the river and with every settlement on these auroras.
- Famine Stele at Sehel
As potter, he was thought to mould the body of a child, and it's ka before birth. He was called the 'Father of Fathers and the Mother of Mothers'. He was also the one who gave health to the child after it was born. In the story of Raddjedet's triplets, the birth related goddesses Isis, Nephthys, Meskhenet and Heqet disguised themselves as female musicians with Khnum as their porter. After each child was "rushed forth", the umbilical cord had been cut and the destiny had been pronounced, Khnum was the one who "gave health" to each child. So not only did Khnum create the child and its double, but he was thought to also give it health at birth.
Hatshepsut was one pharaoh who encouraged the belief that Khnum, at Amen's request, created her and her ka:
Amen-Ra called for Khnum, the creator, the fashioner of the bodies of men.
"Fashion for me the body of my daughter and the body of her ka," said Amen-Ra, "A great queen shall I make of her, and honour and power shall be worthy of her dignity and glory."
"O Amen-Ra," answered Khnum, "It shall be done as you have said. The beauty of your daughter shall surpass that of the gods and shall be worthy of her dignity and glory."
So Khnum fashioned the body of Amen-Ra's daughter and the body of her ka, the two forms exactly alike and more beautiful than the daughters of men. He fashioned them of clay with the air of his potter's wheel and Heqet, goddess of birth, knelt by his side holding the sign of life towards the clay that the bodies of Hatshepsut and her ka might be filled with the breath of life.
- Hatshepsut's Mortuary Temple
His cult was centered on the island of Abu (Elephantine) at Swentet (Aswan) where he had been worshiped since the Early Dynastic period. In the New Kingdom he was worshiped there as head of a triad with his wife Satet (a fertility goddess of the Nile and purifier of the dead) and daughter Anuket (a huntress goddess of the first cataract near Swentet, 'The Embracer').
There is a Greco-Roman temple for him at Iunyt (Esna) where he was given two consorts, Menhit (a lion headed war goddess, 'She Who Slaughters') and Nebtu (a local goddess of the oasis, 'The Guilded One') - one goddess became a form of the other - and a son called Hike (god of magic, 'He Who Activates the Ka').
He was also linked to the war-like creator goddess Neith at Iunyt (Esna). In Her-wer (Antinoe) he was thought to be the husband of Heqet, the frog goddess who gave the newly created being the breath of life before the child was placed to grow in the mother's womb.
Khnum was a ram god of the Nile, a god of silt, fertility and a potter god of creation. He was a god of the sun, a protector of the dead and protector of Re on the solar barque. This god was an ancient god, popular from early times through to the Greco-Roman period who was thought to have created the pharaoh's form and soul on his potters wheel. From a local god of the Nile to a deity connected with childbirth, Khnum was the 'Father of Fathers and the Mother of Mothers' of the pharaoh.
Egyptian Gods: Nephthys
Nephthys is the daughter of Geb (the god of the Earth) and Nut (the goddess of the sky). She is the sister of Osiris, and Isis. She is the sister and wife of Set and the mother of Anubis. Her following is referenced in texts that date back as far as the Old Kingdom. She is part of the Ennead – a group of nine deities linked with the creation myths in Heliopolis. When Ennead and Ogdoad merged, she was one of those who assisted the sun god, Ra in his boat as he journeys across the sky. Her name in Egyptian is spelled as Nebthwt Nebhhwt or Nebthet that meant “Mistress of the House”. She was believed to be the head of the household of Gods and protector of the female head of every household. Her name may also refer to the part of the sky where Horus lived thus, the titles “Lady of the Mansion”, “Mistress of the Mansion”, and “Lady of the House”. She was also associated with Ptah and represented Lower Egypt.
He appears in art as a woman with a long dress carrying a basket on top of the glyph representing the plain of an estate over her head with a scepter and ankh on her hands. As a funerary goddess who represented the normal transitioning of life and death, she is related as a hawk, a falcon, a kite or a woman with wing outstretched for protection. She may also be seen on top of the funeral boat accompanying and assisting the dead in several stages of afterlife. Because of this, she was given the title “Friend of the Dead”.
She is believed to be the personification of the idea of darkness and everything it entails and covers.
According to myth, she conceived no children with Set, the god of the dessert who represented infertility. She believed to have conceived Anubis by Osiris when he pretended to be her sister, Isis, and intoxicated him. Such in affair enraged Set that started his quest on killing Osiris.
Despite her alleged infidelity and affair with Osiris, she has remained very close to her sister Isis. She helped her sister in retrieving the scattered limbs of Osiris thrown at different directions by Set. She abandoned Set and helped in protecting the body of Osiris and his resurrection. She was a loyal friend, a confidant, and dutiful sister to Isis. They always appeared together in funerary rites representing night and day, life and death, and even growth and decay. This made Nephthys acquire one her most important roles as the goddess of mourning who comforted the relatives of the dead. In fact, the wailing and crying mourners in those times were called the “hawks of Nephthys”. Like most funerary goddess, she is found in the ends of coffins, sarcophagus, and shrines for her protection of the contents together with Isis.
She was also believed to be the protector of the pharaoh in life and death. She is pictured to release her fiery breath incinerating the enemies of the pharaoh. She also bestowed upon the pharaoh the ability to see beyond what is hidden by the moonlight making Nephthys the patron of witches and magicians.
She was also worshiped by nursing mothers because she is believed to have nursed Horus and even the pharaoh. Her link to Horus made her one of the important guardians of his canopic jars guarded by Horus’ four sons. Nephthys guarded Hapi, the god who protected the jar that contained the lungs of the dead.
Nephthys had to formal cult center as she is revered throughout the whole Egypt. However, her following were concentrated in the cities of Heliopolis and Abydos. Major centers of worships dedicated to her were in Iunu, in the 13th Nome of Lower Egypt, Senu, Hebet, (Behbit), Per-mert, Re-nefert, Het-sekhem, Het-Khas, Ta-kehset, and Diospolites.
Ancient Egyptian Gods
Amun Amun Hieroglyphs
Amun was the god of air and his wife was Ament. In the Middle Kingdom he was adopted in Thebes as the king of gods with Mut as his wife. Amun and Mut had one child, the moon god, Khonsu. Amun was associated with lots of animals but originally he was depicted as a goose and given the nickname “ the Great Cackler”, however he is most commonly depicted as a ram, a symbol for fertility. Throughout the Middle Kingdom the royal family established temples to Amun, most notably the Luxor Temple and the Great Temple at Karnak. He was mainly worshiped from the Middle Kingdom to the New Kingdom.
Anubis was the of the most iconic gods of ancient Egypt. Anubis is the Greek version of his name his Egyptian name is Anpu or Inpu. Anubis was considered the guardian and protector of the dead, he was originally the god of the underworld but was later associated with funerals and the embalming process. He was thought to be the son of Osiris. Anubis is associated with the Eye of Horus who acted as a guide to the dead and guided them to Osiris. Priests wore Anubis masks during the mummification process. It was believed that Anubis and his wife Anput had a daughter the goddess of purification Kebechet. Anubis was thought to have the head of a jackal and was also depicted as either a full on dog or a jackal, or a man with the head of a jackal. It was also believed that he was a guardian of cemeteries, he was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom.
Anuket was originally the daughter of Ra but was associated with Satet in ancient times. During the New Kingdom she was considered a water deity and was placed in the Abu triad with Khnum and Satet to protect the Nile. Anuket was sometimes associated with the gazelle, and her name means embrace. During the festival of Anuket people threw coins, jewels, gold, and precious gifts into the Nile to please her.
Apep was the ancient Egyptian spirit of evil, darkness, and destruction who threatened to destroy the Sun god Ra as he traveled through the underworld each night. He was called “he who was spat out” and it was believed he was born from the saliva of the goddess Neith. Apep had many nicknames such as “the evil lizard”, “the encircler of the world”, “the enemy”, and “the serpent of rebirth”. He was not worshiped but was feared and could not be completely destroyed. The “book of Apophis” is a collection of magical spells from the New Kingdom which were supposed to repel or contain the evil of the serpent. He was mainly “worshiped” (feared) in the New Kingdom.
Atum is the father of Shu and Tefnut from whom all gods are descendent from. Atum is sometimes depicted with the head of a ram. His symbol is the scarab. He is the creator of all gods and was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom.
Bastet was the goddess of cats in the 22nd dynasty but before that she was considered a lioness warrior or the goddess of warfare in lower Egypt. She was the daughter of Ra and was often depicted as a women with the head of a lioness. As time went on she was also shown as a cat or cat headed women. She was mainly worshiped in the New Kingdom.
Bat was an ancient Egyptian cow goddess in upper Egypt she is referred to as “Bat of two faces”. Her dual faces represent her ability to see both the past and the future but could also possibly represent both banks of the Nile or both upper and lower Egypt.
Pharaoh, he became very popular with everyday Egyptian people because he protected women and children above all others, he was one of the most popular gods in ancient Egypt. He was described as a demon but not considered to be evil. He was generally depicted as a bearded dwarf sticking out his tongue and shacking a rattle and is always facing forwards which is very rare in Egyptian art. It’s said that when a baby smiles or laughs for no reason its because Bes is making funny faces at them. He was mainly worshiped in the Ptolemaic period.
Geb Geb Hieroglyphs Geb laying under Shu and Nut
Geb was the god of earth and the child of Shu and Tefnut. His wife was Nut and they had 5 children Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys and Horus (Horus the elder). He was often worshiped as a goose in the pre-dynastic period but was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Middle Kingdom.
Hapi was the god of water and fertility. He was a patron of both upper and lower Egypt and was depicted as twin deities named Hap-reset(upper Egypt) and Hap-meht(lower Egypt). During floods the Egyptians would often put statues of him in their town to ask for his help at this time. They would also throw offerings into the river at sacred places to make sure the inundation was not to low. He was the husband of Nekhebet in upper Egypt and Wadjet in lower Egypt.
Hathor was one of the most famous goddesses in ancient Egypt, more children were named after her and festivals made in her honor than any other god or goddess in ancient Egypt. She was a sky goddess known as “Lady of the Stars” and “Sovereign of Stars”. She was considered “the mother of mothers” which meant she was the goddess of women, children, fertility, and childbirth. She was often depicted as cow and was brought to Egypt from Nubia by Isis to look after Horus. Before she came to Egypt she was a war goddess, but after looking over Horus she became a very gentle person. She was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period.
Heka was the patron of magic which meant he was also the patron of medicine. He was considered the son of Menhet and Khnum, and was not formally worshiped but many doctors and healers would ask for his help.
Heqet was the goddess of childbirth and fertility in ancient Egypt. She was often depicted as a frog or frog headed women. She was the wife of Khnum the creator of god Abu in one tradition.
Horus, the Greek name used by the god known as Heru in Egypt and was considered to be a celestial falcon. It was believed that the Pharaoh was the embodiment of Horus while living and Osiris once they died. Horus was the embodiment of order, and was the son of Isis and Osiris. He was the husband of Hathor and they had a child named Harsomtus. Horus was mainly worshiped from the Pre-dynastic period to the Late Ptolemaic period.
Isis was one of the oldest gods or goddesses in ancient Egypt, Isis was her Greek name, in Egypt she was known as Aset (Ast, Iset or Uset). She was the sister of Set, Nephthys, and Horus, and the sister and Wife of Osiris, and the daughter of Nut and Geb. She had healing powers and the ability to protect the young. Myth says that she cured Ra of a snake bite in return for knowledge of his secret name. Her most famous cult was on the island of Philae near Aswan where they built a magnificent temple in her honor. She was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Late period.
Khepri was associated with the scarab and the dung beetle, and was often seen pushing the sun. He was mainly worshiped in the New Kingdom.
Khnum was one of the oldest gods in ancient Egypt. Originally a water god who was said to rule over all water. He was also a protective deity of the dead. Khnum’s wife was Satet and their daughter was Anuket. He was often depicted as a ram. Khnum was also a potter god and his role was to make an unborn child out of clay and place it in the mothers body as a male seed.
Khonsu in Falcon form
Khonsu, also known as Khensu, was the god of the moon and time, he was also revered as a god of healing. He was the son of Amun and Mut. When there was a new moon he was known as “the mighty bull” and during a full moon he was associated with the neutered bull. He not only ruled the month but he was also said to posses absolute power over the evil spirits that infected the earth, men, and women. He was also considered a god of love. The people of Egypt dedicated three shrines to him, “the Temple of Khensu, “the Temple of Khensu in Tebes, Nefer-hetep”, and “the Temple of Khensu, who works his plans in Tebes”. He was often depicted with a falcon head.
Kuk was often depicted as a frog or a man with a frog head. He was the god of darkness but was also associated with dawn and given the nickname “bringer-in of the light”.
Maahes is the solar war god who takes the form of a lion. He was rarely referred to by name but most commonly known as “the Lord of the Massacre”. Although he was not referred to as evil he punished people who violated the rules of Ma’at and so promoted order and justice. Lions were closely linked to royalty in Egyptian mythology and Maahes was considered a patron of the pharaoh. He was thought to be the son of Bast and Sekhmet. He was often depicted as a lion headed man carrying a knife and wearing the double crown of upper and lower Egypt, the Atef crown, or a Solar disk and Ureas (royal serpent), sometimes he was depicted as a lion devouring a victim.
Ma’at is an ancient Egyptian goddess. The pharaoh was perceived as the guardian of Ma’at because without Ma’at, Nun would reclaim the universe and chaos would reign supreme. When a person died their heart would be weighed against the feather of Ma’at and if your heart was heavier their heart would either be thrown into the lake of fire or devoured by the fearsome deity known as Ammit, but if your heart was lighter passing the test they would gain eternal life. Ma’at was often depicted as a women wearing a crown with a single ostrich feather protruding from it, but was sometimes depicted as a winged goddess. She was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Ptolemaic period.
Meretseger was the goddess of the necropolis (cemetery) at Thebes. Her name means “she who loves silence”. She was often referred to as “she who is on her mountain”, and sometimes thought of as a mountain herself. She was a protective deity, but also greatly feared, because it was believed that she would hurt anyone who destroyed a tomb, committed a crime or broke a promise. She was very merciful and cured anyone who atoned for what they did. She was usually shown as a cobra or a cobra with the head of a women, sometimes a 3 headed snake or a women with the head of a snake.
Monthu was the solar hawk god and the god of war but as time went on he became known as more of a war god than a sun god. He was often drawn as a man with a falcon head or a man with bull head. It was thought that Monthu was the husband of Tjenenet and when Amun became a national god it was sometimes, thought that Amun and Mut were Monthu’s adoptive parents.
The Constellation Orion
Min was a god worshiped since pre-dynastic times, his early images are the oldest examples of large scale statuary found in Egypt so far. He initially represented the constellation Orion and was believed to control thunder and rain. He was thought to be the child of Reshep and Qadesh. He was the god of fertility, sexuality and sometimes the moon. He was the patron of the fifth month of the Egyptian calendar.
Mut was often shown with the head of a lioness, cow, or cobra. Her husband was Amun so she was considered to be the queen of the gods. She was worshiped until the Roman period when her temple fell into ruins.
Neith was the goddess of war and weaving, and the patron goddess of lower Egypt. During the Old Kingdom she was regarded as the wife of Set, but when he was reinterpreted as a force of evil all association to him was destroyed. She was often considered to be Sobek’s mother and given the nickname “nurse of crocodiles”, but in later times she was considered to be the wife of Sobek. Neith was one of the four goddesses who protected the dead and the canopic jars, she guarded the east side of the sarcophagus and protected Duamutef (the jackal-headed god) as he watched over the stomach. She was usually depicted as a women wearing the crown of lower Egypt, but was sometimes depicted as a Cow.
Nekhbet was the patron of upper Egypt and the protector of royal children. In later periods she was the protector to all young people and expecting mothers. She was often depicted as a vulture, a women with the head of a vulture, a snake, a women wearing the crown of upper Egypt or a women wearing a vulture headdress. She was Hapi’s wife.
Nephthys was the daughter of Geb and Nut, the sister of Osiris, Isis, Horus, and both the sister and wife of Set. Nephthys is her Greek name in Egypt she was known as Nebbhuit or Nebthet. As the goddess of air she could take the form of a bird. Since she was barren she was associated with the vulture, a bird which the Egyptians believed did not bear children and feed on carrion (type of bird). Thus associated vultures with death and decay, as a result Nephthys became the goddess of death and mourning. She was also one of the four goddesses that protected the dead and the canopic jars, she protected the canopic jar with the lungs in it. Nephthys was also considered to be the source of both rain and the Nile river. It was also believed that she protected women in childbirth, thus she was closely associated with both life and death. It was thought that she was the mother of Anubis and the father was either Osiris or Set, most likely being Osiris. She was often depicted as a women with the hieroglyphs for her name on her head, a mourning women, and sometimes as a hawk. She was mostly worshiped in the Old Kingdom.
Nut on top of Shu and Geb
Nut was the daughter of Shu and Tefnut and her husband was Geb, who was also her brother. They had 5 children, Osiris, Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus. Legend says that Ra was not happy that Nut and Geb were always together so he asked Shu to separate them. He also declared that Nut could not bear any children on any day of the Egyptian calendar, but Thoth won the “epagomenal“ or adding of five days from the moon, so on these 5 extra days Nut had her children. Osiris on the 1st, Horus on the 2nd, Set on the 3rd, Isis on the 4th, and Nephthys on the 5th. Nut was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Middle Kingdom.
Osiris was the first son of Geb and Nut and the brother of Set, Horus, Nephthys, and Isis. Isis was also his wife. Osiris was considered to be the King of the underworld but also the god of agriculture. He was usually depicted as a mummified king complete with ceremonial beads (necklace), crown, flail and crozier. He was the father of Horus and was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the Late period. Myth says that before Osiris was a god he was the first Pharaoh of Egypt.
Ptah was the patron of sculptors, painters, builders, carpenters, as well as other craftsman. He was also the god of rebirth and the patron of the second month of the Egyptian calendar. He was thought to be married to either Bast or Sekhmet and was the father of Nefertum, Maahes, and the adoptive father of Imhotep. Ptah was often depicted as a mummified man with unbound arms holding a staff incorporating the Ankh to represent life the Was scepter to represent power over chaos and the Djed pillar to represent stability. He was mainly worshiped in the Old Kingdom.
Ra was the god of the sun but was sometimes thought to be the king of all gods. It was believed that Ra would “die” everyday when the sun went below the horizon and so he would travel through the underworld until morning where he would be reborn everyday at sunrise. It was believed that he was married to either Hesat or Hathor but they are also usually thought of as his “children” its likely that people started to think that when people started referring to him as the king of gods which associated him with Atum the creator of god. Ra was mainly worshiped from the Pre-dynastic period to the New Kingdom.
Satis or Satet was an archer goddess, as a warrior goddess she protected the pharaoh and the southern borders of ancient Egypt. She was also a goddess of the inundation and her most important role was the yearly flooding of the Nile. Myth says on the “night of the teardrop” Isis would shed a single tear and Satis would catch it and pour it into the Nile, causing the flood, because of this she was linked to Sothis, the personification of the star Sept (dog star) which rose in the sky just before the arrival of the flood each year. She was often depicted as a women wearing the white crown of upper Egypt decorated with either ostrich plumes, gazelle or antelope horns. She was sometimes depicted as a women wearing a star on her head and carrying water jars or caring a bow and arrows but they are usually replaced with a scepter and an Ankh symbolizing life.
Set is one of the most ancient gods of Egypt, and was the son of Geb and Nut and brother of Osiris, Horus, Isis, and the brother and husband of Nephthys. He was a storm god associated with eclipses, thunderstorms and earthquakes. He was considered to be strong and dangerous but was not always considered to be evil. It was by the second Intermediate period that he was starting to be seen as a force of evil. He was believed to be the black boar who swallowed the moon each month and was identified with the hippopotamus, crocodiles, scorpions, turtles, pigs, and donkeys. These animals all were considered dangerous or unclean by ancient Egyptians. Some fish were considered to be sacred to Set the most known ones were the Nile carp and the Oxyrynchus as they apparently swallowed the only missing piece of Osiris after Set had dismembered him. He was often depicted as a man with the head of a mythical creature and a long nose, square ears and sometimes as either a hippopotamus or a boar. Set was mainly worshiped from the Pre-dynastic period to the New Kingdom.
Seshat was the goddess of reading, writing, arithmetic’s, and architecture, and was the wife of Thoth. She was the scribe of the pharaohs recording all of their achievements and triumphs, including recording both the treasure and the captives taken in battle, she was also thought to record the actions of all people on the leaves of the sacred persea tree. Seshat also looked after the library of the gods and was the patron of all earthly libraries, writing, accounting, and taking census. According to a myth it was Seshat who invented writing but her husband Thoth was who taught the people how to write. She was often depicted wearing a leopard skin dress and a headdress made of a flower or a seven pointed star on top of a pair of inverted horns. She was mainly worshiped from the Pre-dynastic period forward.
Shu standing on top of Geb and holding up Nut
Shu was the god of light, air, and wind. As the god of light he represented the separation between day and night and between the world of the living and the world of the dead. As the god of air he represented the space between the earth and the heavens and gave the breath of life to all living creatures. As the god of wind, sailors would call upon him to provide good winds to power their boats. The clouds were considered to be his bones, and he supported the ladder by which the diseased souls could reach the heavens. He was the first god Atum created and the brother and husband of Tefnut and father of Geb and Nut. He was often depicted as a man wearing a headdress made of ostrich feathers holding a Was scepter to represent power and an Ankh to represent the breath of life. He sometimes wore a sun disk on his head because of his connection with Ra. Shu was often commonly shown standing on top of Geb with his arms above his head holding Nut. He was mainly worshiped from the Old Kingdom to the New Kingdom.
Thoth was the god of writing and wisdom as well as a Lunar deity, in the New Kingdom he appeared in the book of the dead recording the results of the weighing of the heart ceremony. He was often depicted as a man with either the head of a baboon or the head of an Ibis (type of bird). He was mainly worshiped in the Late period.
Khnum is the creation of the shield or sheath, shown by the defensive Ram horns. He is created by electric resonance, in a phenomenon described by Banebdjedet, he allows a celestial body to store surplus charge in its double layer and corresponding plasma sheath. Khnum usually sits above the positive electrode ionosphere described by Nephthys and supports the plasmasphere known as Shu.
Alternative hieroglyphs for Khnemu describing Khnum as an electric field that seeks to store surplus charge. Double layers are electric fields that store charge, once created become relatively stable providing Banebdjed is maintained (explained later).
In the legend of Ra and Isis, Khnemu made the egg of the sun, meaning the plasma sheath or shell that insulates it from external electrical influences and Ptah gave light to it with his hieroglyphs that describe the form of connected Birkeland Currents powering the Star.
Safire Project - Double Layers around Anode
At Safire Project a laboratory based experiment was envisaged in 2013 to model the electric sun, this was the same year I decoded electricity into the sacred ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. To the left is a photograph showing these double layers which form around a spherical anode in a controlled chamber, each double layer or ring can be represented by the jug hieroglyph as a store of electric charge around the anode, as shown in the hieroglyphs surrounding Khnum below.
If you wish to read more about the very interesting work being carried out at the Safire Project please follow this link.
At the Temple of Karnak the Ram displays horns that curl inwardly with a defensive stature, representing the increased magnetic field and sheath that shields the planet from cosmic rays, solar outbursts or unknown bodies on a collision trajectory.
Earth Shield and Khnum the Ram God at Karnak Temple.
Nikola Tesla, a physicist, inventor and electrical engineer is quoted as saying, "When the great truth accidentally revealed and experimentally confirmed is fully recognized, that this planet, with all its appalling immensity, is to electric currents virtually no more than a small metal ball and that by this fact many possibilities, each baffling imagination and of incalculable consequence, are rendered absolutely sure of accomplishment."
According to theory, Earth itself behaves as a resonant LC circuit when it is electrically excited at certain frequencies. An LC circuit is a circuit that has L - an Inductor, and C - a capacitor. The magnetic field of the Earth itself resonates at around 8 Hertz. The oscillating magnetic field creates an oscillating electric current in the earth via induction.
The circuit can act as an electrical resonator, an electrical analogue of a tuning fork, storing energy oscillating at the circuit's resonant frequency. In the case of the earth that frequency is known as Schumann Resonance, and is created by lightning pulses, shown in the Geomagnetic Spectrogram displayed below.
Geomagnetic Spectrogram showing Schumann Resonance of the Earth Seshat Measuring the Frog Jump at Luxor Temple
Resonance of a circuit involving capacitors and inductors occurs because the collapsing magnetic field of the inductor generates an electric current in its windings that charges the capacitor, and then the discharging capacitor provides an electric current that builds the magnetic field in the inductor. This process is repeated continually. An analogy is a mechanical pendulum.
Khnum - Pouring Surplus Charge
Nephthys (left) and Isis (right) Guarding the Body of Osirus. Temple of Siti I at Abydos Egypt
Nephthys (left) Hathor (right). Edfu Temple Egypt
Nephthys or Nebthet was a goddess and a member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology. She was a daughter of Nut and Geb. Nephthys was typically paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the (re)birth experience. Her son was Anubis, whose father was Osiris. Some myths say that Nephthys intoxicated Osiris and seduced him, thus creating Anubis. Yet others say that she disguised herself as her sister Isis, Osiris' wife, and became pregnant by him. It was Nephthys' affair with Osiris which enraged Seth and was one of his motives for murdering Osiris.
Other names : Nekhbet
Titles : Vulture Goddess, Bird Goddess, Patron Goddess of Upper Egypt
Nekhebet, also known as Nekhbet, is commonly pictured as a vulture holding an ankh. She is sometimes depicted with her wings spread protectively over the pharaoh.
As one of the more ancient Egyptian goddesses, Nekhebet, or Nekhbet, was originally the local goddess of the town Nekheb. However, as her influence grew, she became the goddess of the entire Upper (Southern) Egypt. In fact, the vulture of Nekhebet was used to symbolize Upper Egypt on the pharaoh's crown, while the cobra symbolized Lower Egypt. Nekhebet was the wife of Hapi, god of the Nile.
Nekhebet had a protective nature, being the protector goddess of mothers and children. She also had a more aggressive nature, guarding and fighting alongside the pharaoh in battles.
Ancient Egyptian Gods and Goddesses
Osiris is the ancient egyptian god of corn. His followers originated from Syria, and these followers refer to him as Adnjeti. They have established in Delta city long ago in predynastic times. The Djed column is a fetish or cult object by which the city is known.
No one can say for sure what the name stands for, but it is related to the “creation of a throne.” Some also relate it to Power or Seat of the Eye.
The Osiris fertility cult was apparently peaceful, and it later spread to virtually every part of Egypt. The burial rites associated with this deity were established at the early part of his existence.
He had already absorbed the funerary gods of Abydos by the Fifth Dynasty and also had an association with the dead pharaohs. He later became the supreme god of Egypt.
The Heliopolitan Ennead then incorporated Osiris by mythology. He is also said to be the son of the earth god, Geb.
Seth can also be called Suty, Setekh, Sutehk or Setesh. The Egyptians term him as the god of foreigners, violence, disorder, storm and desert. He is called Seth in ancient Greek mythology, and he has a decisive role in accompanying Ra to rule Apep on his solar boat.
Apep was the serpent of Chaos. One of his vital roles includes that of a reconciled combatant. He was also the lord of the desert or red land. He acts as a balance to the role of Horus, who is the lord of the soil or black land.
He is seen as a usurper in Egyptian mythology because he mutilated Osiris, his brother. However, Osiris’ wife reassembled her husband’s mutilated body and got him resurrected, after which Osiris gave birth to Horus, his son and heir. When he grew up, Horus sought to revenge his father’s murder against Set.
Isis is the goddess of medicine, magic, motherhood, fertility and marriage. Several tiles and names have been given to this god over time. She is also being worshipped in some parts of Europe and Egypt with many of her cults and temples spreading across the places.
In fact, she is termed as the deity with ten thousand names. This is just an exaggeration though she does not have up to ten thousand names. Some of the names by which she is being called are Werethekau, Aust, Aset, Urethekau, Unt, Iahu, Hesat, Esu, Eset and Eenohebis.
Isis has an association with several other Egyptian goddesses, like Hathor and Sekhmet. She is also being worshipped in Greece, where she is associated with some Greek goddesses, like Athena, Tethys and Persephone. Some of her titles include:
- Mother of God
- The Maker of Sunrise
- Queen of Heaven
- Queen of all Gods
- The Divine One.
Nephthys was first mentioned as a goddess during the Old Kingdom. She was the daughter of Nut and Geb and a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. She was also a sister to Horus, Isis and Osiris. Also, she was the wife and sister to Set.
She got a place on Ra’s boat after Ogdoad and Ennead merged so that she could accompany Ra on his journey through the underworld.
The Greek calls her Nephthys, while the Egyptians call her Nebthwt, Nebthet or Nebhhwt, with the word “hwt” standing for “house”.
“House” in this context can stand for the whole of Egypt or a royal family. She protects the oldest females in all households, and she is also seen as the head of the household of the gods.
Nephthys was associated with the Lower Egypt or Ptah-Tanen. Isis and Khnum represent upper Egypt.
The Nut is the goddess of the sky in the Ennead of ancient Egypt. She represented the stars arching over the earth and covering nude women. She was the daughter of Tefnut and Shu. She also got married to her brother named Geb.
Her five children were Horus, Nephthys, Isis, Set and Osiris. She stands out as one of the oldest among the deities recognised in Egypt. Her origin was also found in Helipolios creation story. She is also considered as the goddess of the nighttime sky.
Her name was then shortened to “sky goddess.” The Pot was her headdress, and it also represents the uterus. She is also depicted in nude human form.
At times, she is depicted in the form of a cow, and the high body of the cow was said to form the heaven and sky. Furthermore, she can be represented as a giant sow suckling many piglets or a sycamore tree.
Ra is the god of the sun in ancient Egypt. His major cult centre is located in Heliopolis, and his symbol is the sun disk. He gave birth to eight children, namely Serket, Ma’at, Satet, Bastet, Sekhmet, Hathor, Tefnut and Shu.
He has no parent since he was self-created. However, some accounts refer to Neith as his father. His siblings are Serket, Sobecik and Apep.
Thoth is among the deities of Egyptian pantheon and was depicted as a baboon or a man with the head of an ibis in art. The baboon is his sacred animal. Seshat is his female counterpart, and Ma’at is the name of his wife.
His chief temple can be found in the city of Khmum, which was later called Hermopolis Magna in the Greco-Roman era. Some also called him the same as Hermes in line with Greek interpretation. Also, he served as the mediating power between evil and good.
Geb is the Egyptian god of the Earth. He later became a member of the Ennead of Heliopolis. He was considered as the father of snakes because he had a viper around his head. Ancient Egypt mythology has it that his laughter can create an earthquake.
It is also believed that crops can only grow with his permission. The name can also be called Keb or Seb.
Aroueris is among the most significant of the ancient gods in Egypt. He was part of Egyptian worship from prehistoric Egypt to Roman Egypt.
Egyptologists record different forms of Aroueris in history. It has been concluded that these different forms are the various perceptions of the same god, who is considered as a multi-layered deity. The various perspectives are complementary rather than antagonistic.
It is in agreement with the way the Egyptians perceive the multiple facets of reality. Most times, Aroueris is depicted by a falcon, either a peregrine or lanner falcon. At times, it can be depicted by a man having a falcon head.
Aroueris was described as the son of Osiris and Isis. He equally played a significant role as Osiris’ hair in the Osiris myth.
He was equally known as Set’s rival it would be recalled that Set murdered Osiris. Hathor is regarded either as his mother or wife. Ancient Egyptians consider him as the god of the sky and kingship.
Seth was Osiris' evil brother and the god of chaos, confusion and darkness. He is depicted in profile as a human male with the head of an indeterminate animal. He was despised by most of the other gods and often depicted as a donkey, a hippopotamus, or a pig. Although eventually defeated by Horus, their struggle connotes the ongoing battle between good and evil.
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