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Abdul Karim Kassem, the son of a carpenter, was born in Baghdad in 1914. He joined the Iraq Army and eventually reached the rank of brigadier.
The Jewish state of Israel was established on 14th May 1948 when the British mandate over Palestine came to an end. The neighbouring Arab states, including Iraq, refused to recognize Israel and invaded the country on the 15th May. During the war Kassem showed outstanding bravery and won several medals.
Although Iraq was a close ally of Britain, King Faisal II, under pressure from his own population, was forced to give his support to Egypt in the war over the Suez Canal. However, he upset Arab nationalists in 1958 when he opposed the plan to establish the United Arab Republic of Egypt and Syria.
In July 1958, King Faisal II and his entire household were assassinated during a military coup. Nuri es-Said, his prime minister, attempted to escape from Baghdad disguised as a woman but he was captured and executed on 14th July, 1958.
Abdul Karim Kassem emerged as the leader of the Iraqi Revolution and became prime minister and minister of defence in the new republican government. In 1959 Iraq withdrew from the Baghdad Pact. In 1961 the Kurds, located in northern Iraq, staged a revolt and demanded independence from Baghdad.
Kassem's moderate policies lost him the support of the Ba'ath Party and he was executed after a military coup in February 1963.
Biography of Abdul Karim Kassem (1914-1963)
Political and military Iraqi born in Baghdad on 21 November 1914 and died in the same city on February 9, 1963. Its Arabic name was Abd al - Karim Qassìm to. He/She was President of the Republic of Iraq, following a coup which overthrew the monarchy of King Faisal II, from 1958 until his death.
He was born in a poor neighborhood in Baghdad. His father was grown with little success corn on the banks of the Tigris River, it suffered quite a few shortcomings during his childhood. He/She conducted his primary studies in Baghdad. When he/she was only seventeen years he/she entered the Military Academy of Iraq. He/She graduated with the rank of second lieutenant in 1934. Later he/she was instructor at the own Academy military of Iraq. He/She joined the General staff of the army in 1939. He/She participated in the pro-alemana revolt that occurred in the heart of the army in 1941, in the middle of World War II. That same year he/she obtained the command of a battalion that fought against the rebel Kurdish tribes in the North of Iraq. By your participation in this campaign he/she was awarded the highest decoration granted by the Iraqi army. In 1942 he/she became friends with Abdul Salim Arif. Which began to consider the idea of overthrowing the Iraqi monarch, Faisal II.
As Commander of a military unit in the first Arab-Israeli war after the war traveled for a period of six months to the United Kingdom in order to complete his military training, he/she took part in 1948. On his return to Iraq in 1955 he/she was promoted to Brigadier general. With this new range, he/she headed the Iraqi forces that intervened in Jordan during the Suez canal crisis in 1956. Its expertise in combat made that I was gained the respect and admiration of his colleagues. At the heart of the army created an organization of officers, called the official free, demanding the change of the regime. Along with the majority of the opinion public Iraqi was against the pro-Western policy promoted by the monarchy. In 19567 it managed to gather under their control all the groups of opposition to the monarchy that had arisen in the bosom of army.
Kassem led the military coup that overthrew the monarchy of King Faysal II on July 14, 1958. It took a move planned by the Government to seize control of Baghdad and the Palacio Real. During the coup, was assassinated the monarch and 19 members of his family. Kassem proclaimed the Republic of Iraq and proclaimed himself President of the same, with Arif as Vice President. In the new cabinet that formed was saved for if same the portfolios of Interior and defense. It was gradually accumulating more powers to become a true dictator. It undertook a series of reforms of social, economic, and social type of orientation left wing in order to develop and modernize the country.
At the time the Arab world lived a moment of euphoria panarabista with the formation of the Arab United Republic (RAU) by Egypt and Syria at the beginning of 1958. Both countries were invited to join the Republic to Kassem, who said that he/she wanted to achieve stability inside of the country before considering joining any Federation. This angered Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser, who tried to promote its fall. The Egyptian President accused him of opposing the union of the Arab world and give the entry communism in the Middle East. Groups nasserists in the bosom of the Iraqi army began to move to oust Kassem. At the head of them was Abdul Salim Arif, Vice President of the country and one of the closest collaborators from his youth of the President, but that was also a fervent nasserist. At the end of 1958 Kassem accused Arif of being behind a plot to assassinate him which dismissed him, tried and condemned to death, although it subsequently pardoned him and sent him as Ambassador to Germany.
Kassem began to advertise as the only father of the revolution that brought the Republic, and began to seek an alliance with the Communist Party of Iraq. In 1959 his regime became mired in a deep crisis, caused by the uprising of Kurds, people calling for greater autonomy. His foreign policy was marked by confrontation with Egypt and its claims over the sovereignty of Kuwait. In March 1959 the proegipcia opposition of the army revolted in the city of Mosul, although the bulk of the army remained loyal to the President. After overcoming this conspiracy inspired by Cairo, conducted a brutal crackdown in the bosom of the army, firing two hundred officers who considered of dubious loyalty. Expelled from the country to all Syrian citizens and closed all agencies and Egyptian offices. Soon after he/she denounced the agreements with the Iraq Petroleum Company, which had the exclusivity of the exploitation of the oil wells in the country, and founded the national oil company of Iraq, which would begin to exploit part of wells.
These facts made him earn the enmity of the West, which accused him of carrying out a policy of procommunist orientation. These critics emphasized is even more when in April it refused any kind of American aid. On March 24, 1959 he/she left the Baghdad Pact, which formed part of United Kingdom, Iran, Turkey and Pakistan. By these circumstances his regime was increasingly more isolated internationally. National crisis escalated when the Communists, their former allies promoted a general strike, this made it to seek the support of certain civilian sectors, which could purge the Communists of the army and the police. The Communists and nationalists allied to end her life. On October 7, 1959 he/she suffered an assassination attempt when his car was riddled with bullets by nationalist elements. From hospital he/she accused RAU of being behind this plot against him.
The majority of those involved in the event, among them was Saddam Hussein, were forced to leave the country. The bombing made that the President decided to not abandon Baghdad, since there it felt safer. Its authoritarianism was becoming increasingly have less support. During 1960, he/she suspended the activities of all political organizations and intensified repression against opposition elements in the bosom of the army and civilian institutions. It was governing on the fringes of the nasserists and the Communists, which caused great tension at the heart of the country. To win popular support intensified social reforms: distributed lands by limiting the size of properties, granted more rights to women and accelerated the nationalization of the oil companies.
Tensions with the West escalated in April 1960 when it announced the creation of an army ready to defend the interests of Palestine. The Kurdish rebellion intensified in the spring of 1961, since Kassem was still refusing to grant them greater autonomy. His failure in the Suppression of the rebellion made him lose braces that preserved in the bosom of the army and among the population. Many soldiers who were undecided took the decision to join a conspiracy that was underway to oust Kassem, headed by Arif. The crisis worsened when the President announced his intention to invade Kuwait to become an Iraqi province that same year.
To try to reduce stress policy in January 1961 announced the release of 200 political prisoners and decreed the end of the curfew. However the ongoing street clashes by nationalists and Communists led him to return to impose curfew in March. In a desperate attempt to retain power at the end of 1962 announced the creation of the Popular Arab Republic of Iraq, the holding of free elections and the drafting of a new Constitution. He/She was overthrown in February 1963 by a military court Ba'athist coup, after violent clashes on the streets of Baghdad. He/She was arrested, sentenced to death and shot.
DANN, u., Iraq Qassem under: A Political History, 1958-1963. (London, 1969).
November 26, 2014
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Only once in a while does a book come along that sheds new light on the 1960s. Karen Paget&rsquos forthcoming Patriotic Betrayal (Yale University Press) is just such a work, telling the inside story of how the Central Intelligence Agency corrupted the natural and democratic growth of students&rsquo rights movement by infiltrating the National Student Association (NSA) and directing it to its Cold War ends.
The story begins in the 1950s, which may leave some to wonder if it&rsquos not a stale and useless tale by now. It&rsquos relevant today, however, because of the cancerous growth of Big Brother surveillance and the proliferation of clandestine operations branded in the name of &ldquodemocracy promotion,&rdquo from Cuba to the Ukraine. The pervasive rise of secret money in campaigns, moreover, makes it impossible to know whether operatives of our intelligence agencies have any role in harassing radicals or steering social movements, or whether such roles have been passed to private foundations. Democracy is increasingly in the dark. Any light from history can serve as high-beams to illuminate the future.
My personal involvement in this story begins in the late 1950s, when I was a student editor at The Michigan Daily, the University of Michigan&rsquos student paper. In those fallow years, I was a developing idealist who did not know that the CIA had begun recruiting students for its secret war against the Soviet Union. In 1960, I hitchhiked to the University of California, Berkeley, to write about the new student movement there. In the Bay Area, students protesting the House Un-American Activities Committee were beaten, hosed and washed down the steps of City Hall. They were developing the first campus political party at Berkeley, known as SLATE. They were fighting for the right of student governments to take stands on &ldquooff-campus&rdquo issues like racial segregation everywhere from San Francisco&rsquos downtown hotels to Mississippi. They were in the process of becoming the Free Speech Movement and the Vietnam Day Committee of 1964 and 1965.
I spent an exhilarating summer staying in an apartment full of Berkeley radicals. One of the many visitors I met was Donald Hoffman, who represented the National Student Association, which included members of student government and Daily editors that met every summer. He was a bit older than me, a friendly liberal fellow who wanted to make sure that Berkeley students came to that summer&rsquos national convention. He also was a CIA agent, and remained so for many decades.
The editor of the Daily before me, Peter Eckstein, was enlisted by the CIA to direct its recruiting operations, which targeted student activists in Europe who had been attracted to Soviet-sponsored youth festivals. Peter was preceded by another Daily editor, Harry Lunn, who became a lifetime CIA operative in many postings around the world.
In 1962, curious about these youth festivals and eager to see the world, I interviewed as a possible participant in an American (anti-communist) delegation to the Soviet-sponsored Helsinki Youth Festival in Finland, one of several of the era. Their purpose was to confront the communist delegates with a counter-narrative about American democracy and firmly oppose any rapprochement or coexistence between capitalism and communism. Neutralism in the Cold War was considered as being &ldquosoft&rdquo on Communism.
In the end, I didn&rsquot attend. But I will never forget the smart, attractive woman who interviewed me. A graduate of Smith College, her name was Gloria Steinem. This was one year before she worked at the Playboy Club in New York City and six years before she wrote &ldquoA Bunny&rsquos Tale&rdquo in Show magazine and described herself as an &ldquoactive feminist&rdquo in 1969.
The CIA&rsquos Harry Lunn, according to Patriotic Betrayal, encouraged Steinem to become &ldquothe public face of the Independent Service for Information,&rdquo an anti-communist delegation controlled and funded by the CIA, on the Vienna Youth Festival by early 1959, it had been renamed the Independent Research Service. She was &ldquoone of the few women in the NSA-CIA club,&rdquo Paget writes, noting that &ldquoSteinem, who knowingly cooperated with the CIA, is sensitive today about her work with the Agency.&rdquo
Steinem recruited about one hundred Americans into a delegation to confront the 17,000 youth at the 1959 Vienna Youth Festival under the banners of Marxism and national liberation. Her bloc employed dirty tricks to disrupt the proceedings, including distributing anti-communist propaganda to fill a shortage of toilet paper and invading discussion groups to attack communist dogma. Pleased with her work in Vienna, the CIA sent Steinem to lead a similar delegation to Helsinki in 1962, where the CIA courted African students with American jazz and, according to Paget, left &ldquomemorable images of Steinem parting the beaded curtains to enter the nightclub as if she was Mata Hari.&rdquo
Another figure I met at the turn of the 1960s was Allard Lowenstein, who had attended every NSA conference since the group&rsquos inception and had obscure but real connections to State Department and CIA powers behind the scenes. Lowenstein courageously helped smuggle black South Africans into the West, was an adviser to the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee during Mississippi Summer in 1964, led the national &ldquoDump Johnson&rdquo campaign in 1967 and 1968, was elected to Congress in 1968, and eventually was murdered in 1980 by a disturbed protégé, Dennis Sweeney, who claimed that Lowenstein had planted a communication device in his teeth.
Personally, I never made it into a CIA front group, though I tried hard enough. I was &ldquounwitting,&rdquo in spook-speak. &ldquoWitting&rdquo was what the agency called people in the know. They first tested and recruited them into high positions in the student world, then administered a surprise security oath before telling them they were part of the CIA.
Under the guise of the NSA, the CIA recruited me to write a pamphlet on the student civil-rights movement (&ldquoRevolution in Mississippi,&rdquo 1961) for global distribution. They rejected the pamphlet without saying why, leaving it to be published by Students for a Democratic Society. They also rejected me for an International Student Research Seminar in Philadelphia, which I learned was a vetting ground for future agents. In response, I organized a campaign at the NSA convention that summer against the &ldquosecret elite&rdquo whom I accused of running the convention. Out of that split came my decision to work full-time for SDS as a field secretary and later president. To this day, I don&rsquot know if the Port Huron Statement would have been written if I had been co-opted into an NSA front.
Finally, the inner contradictions became so great that an NSA insider leaked the CIA story to Ramparts magazine in 1967, causing a huge scandal and the disintegration of the NSA into a shell of its former self.
So that&rsquos the personal history. Paget, the author of Patriotic Betrayal and now a recognized Bay Area political scientist and writer, went through those same activist years as a witting participant in the NSA along with her husband, Michael Enwall. Her husband lost an NSA election by one vote in 1965, sparking a growing suspicion about where power lay. She has spent years perusing documents and interviewing former NSA leaders to reveal a story that many insider may not wish to be told.
In recent e-mail correspondence, I asked her to clear up a long-time mystery among historians and activists: whether Allard Lowenstein was a CIA agent. &ldquoThe evidence is overwhelming,&rdquo she wrote, that Lowenstein was &ldquonot the prime mover or instigator of the CIA relationship.&rdquo Nor does she believe he signed a security oath under the CIA&rsquos recruitment program, which was known as Covert Action 5. But Paget&rsquos research led her to conclude that Lowenstein &ldquoknew but wasn&rsquot witting&rdquo&mdashthat is, was aware of the CIA funding but was an independent player, sometimes a thorn in the Agency&rsquos side.
Two other conclusions about Lowenstein can be drawn from Paget&rsquos research. Like Steinem, he was a hardline cold warrior who wanted to build an aggressive liberal, anti-communist movement against the Soviets. That meant supporting the Cold War instead of coexistence strategies then promoted by Sweden&rsquos Olof Palme, a student leader who became the country&rsquos long-time neutralist prime minister before his murder in 1986. Second, Lowenstein went out of his way to block the Ramparts story from being published, joining a 1967 meeting of CIA and NSA officials considering how to manage the story if it was leaked. Lowenstein argued that the Ramparts story would leave &ldquoblood on [their] hands&rdquo and &ldquomany people would be killed&rdquo if it was confirmed. Paget writes that &ldquo[t]oday none of the NSA officers who were present can explain Lowenstein&rsquos involvement.&rdquo Lowenstein, she says, also went to the White House, where he was asked by Walt Rostow, Lyndon B. Johnson&rsquos national security adviser, to draft a reply to the Ramparts story if it came out.
One conclusion from this history is that the CIA&rsquos illegal infiltration of domestic political groups began long before 9/11 and the present &ldquoWar on Terrorism.&rdquo It has been a rogue agency for a very long time, masking its agenda by claiming that domestic spying is justified as part of its global duties. Just as the control of NSA was justified for &ldquoforeign policy&rdquo reasons, so has its wiretapping and spying on domestic sources been justified on the grounds of monitoring international terrorism.
Second, the CIA-NSA revelations created a permanent climate of paranoia among progressives who would never know again who might be &ldquowitting.&rdquo After the many CIA scandals of the 1970s, both political parties created partisan institutes to channel millions of taxpayer dollars to NGOs in countries struggling with democracy issues. The differences are blurred between the CIA and the US Agency for International Development, which spends an annual $20 million on covert &ldquodemocracy promotion&rdquo in Cuba alone. Similar programs are aimed at Russia, Venezuela, and various &ldquocolor&rdquo revolutions in the former Eastern Europe. The United States cannot credibly claim a clean foreign policy, and fuels a global opposition to its double standards.
The real-world consequences of these manipulations of student politics are still with us. Here are three examples from Paget&rsquos history:
Supporting Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Saddam Hussein was a CIA operative whom the American spy agency deployed in 1959 to kill the ruler of Iraq, Abdul Karim Kassem. When that assassination attempt failed, Saddam entered a CIA protection program in Egypt until his Baath Party, also supported by the CIA, seized power in 1963. At least 5,000 Iraqis, most of them student activists, were executed immediately by the Baathist regime. And so our Iraq War began.
In those years, the NSA&rsquos secret elite encouraged the NSA Congress to celebrate the Ba&rsquoathist coups in Iraq and Syria. The Cold War rationale for ousting Kassem was that he tolerated communists in his governing coalition. (The same rationale was given for the 1954 coups in Iran and Guatemala.) Kassem was executed by a firing squad. Many of the student victims of the new repression were members of the General Union of Iraqi Students. The NSA staff, according to Paget, &ldquoturned in hundreds of reports that contained assessments of foreign students&rdquo to the CIA, which were fed to the new regime&rsquos security apparatus. It&rsquos &ldquoa fact that today haunts many of them,&rdquo she says. In Iran, similar lists of human targets were prepared &ldquothe witting NSA staff did not seem to understand the danger posed to Iranian students by their constant reporting on them.&rdquo
Subverting Cuba. After briefly supporting the Cuban revolution in the 1950s, the NSA the CIA secretly decided to counter Fidel Castro&rsquos appeal to Latin American students. Months after the failed 1961 invasion at the Bay of Pigs, the NSA leadership and the conservative Young Americans for Freedom both invited Cuban exiles to woo the delegates to the anti-communist side at the 1961 Congress. Both Cuban exile speakers were on the CIA&rsquos payroll. The &ldquopreferred&rdquo exile was Juan Manuel Salvat, a former student leader who had broken with the Revolution, was imprisoned, fled to Miami and returned in the Bay of Pigs invasion. The same Salvat went on to pioneer the &ldquoMongoose&rdquo hit-and-run attacks on Cuba, including an attempt to blow up a Havana hotel where Fidel had a meeting. By 1962, the US policy of &ldquono more Cubas&rdquo in the hemisphere had fostered a wave of right-wing dictatorships and a defection of Latin American student unions to the leftist International Union of Students.
Arresting Nelson Mandela. The CIA arranged for the arrest and lifetime sentence of Nelson Mandela in 1962. The same NSA helped organize the South African student opposition to Mandela&rsquos African National Congress (ANC), known as the National Union of Southern African Students (NUSAS). The US&rsquos objection was that the ANC youth had affiliated themselves with the Soviet-sponsored student movements and South Africa&rsquos Communist Party. The NSA funded NUSAS starting in the late 1950s with grants from a CIA-related foundation.
In today&rsquos world of official religious fanaticism, corruption and repression, it should be easy for the United States to improve and project our democracy as an alternative. Instead, the CIA is spying on our allies, secret military operations take place in multiple nations, and &ldquodemocracy&rdquo is all to often seeded by agents of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the CIA, or the NSA. As many reports reveal, the CIA continues to cultivate &ldquoassets&rdquo in the mainstream media, and meets with top editors to to discourage or delay the publication of controversial news. The lesson of Paget&rsquos book is that there is a deeper housekeeping that needs to be done at every level before the United States can offer democracy as a formula. It may be impossible.
Tom Hayden Tom Hayden, the former California state assemblyman and senator, author, lifelong activist, and Nation editorial board member, died in Santa Monica on October 23, 2016. He was the author of more than 20 books, including most recently Hell No: The Forgotten Power of the Vietnam Peace Movement (Yale) and Listen, Yankee! Why Cuba Matters (Seven Stories).
The CIA and Anthrax
As everyone is aware by now, the anthrax postal attacks began on 4 October in Florida, when a photo editor at a Boca Raton tabloid inhaled the bacteria form of anthrax, and died. His was the first such death in the US since 1976. Two other Sun employees also were infected, but survived, and are being treated. Unidentified FBI agents, with their hats pulled down low over their eyes, said their hands-off investigation is now a criminal probe, while other unnamed officials (CIA?) said there is no evidence linking the outbreak to the September 11 terrorist attacks.
Then in New York, teeny-tiny anthrax spores were found on the police officer and two lab technicians who were investigating a totally unrelated case in which an anthrax infected letter was sent to government propagandist Tom Brokaw.
Basking in the limelight of the recent tragedy, New York Mayor (and adulterer) Rudolph Giuliani said Brokaw had not, repeat, not been contaminated. The Greatest Generation could relax, he said, urging calm, and asking that the usurper issue an emergency order allowing to him remain as mayor indefinitely.
Like the isolated case in Florida, the New Yorkers who contracted the deadly disease had touched envelopes that contained anthrax spores, the type that have been artificially produced across America for years, in order to develop antidotes in case a Three Mile Island-type accident spread the military’s purely defensive (unlike Saddam’s) anthrax arsenal o’er our beloved Homeland.
Then on Saturday the Microsoft office in arid Reno, Nevada received a piece of mail sent from Malaysia containing anthrax dust. None of the six people who accessed the envelope are known to have been infected by the bacteria (not virus) or offended by the pornography the envelope also contained. (The pictures were not released to the public, but are rumored to be of you-know-who in his snorting days, cavorting with a donkey in Tijuana.)
The latest and most newsworthy of these unrelated incidents came on Monday, when the senate office of Bush Administration rubberstamp, Tom Daschle, was suddenly struck. Camera shy FBI agents said the package was postmarked Trenton, New Jersey, same as the anthrax-laced letter sent to Brokaw.
When asked if the object of Eternal Hot Pursuit, Osama bin Laden, had sent the black valentines, the idiotic unpresident replied, “I wouldn’t put it past him.”
All kidding aside, while the sending of anthrax to U.S. citizens seems to be yet another bizarre aspect of the on-going terror attacks on America, there is a precedent, and it is connected to America’s on-going woes with the Arab world.
The problem began in 1958, with the formation of the United Arab Republic by Egypt and Syria. To protect Israel, the CIA armed Iraq’s Kurds and encouraged them to revolt and attack Syria, which was considered a Soviet pawn. In response, Colonel Abdul Karim el-Kassem overthrew Iraq’s King Faisal and restored relations with the Soviets. The coup d’etat incited nationalists in Lebanon’s Arab community and in May 1958, armed revolt erupted in Beirut. The U.S. Information Agency building was burned and sacked and the ARAMCO pipeline from Saudi Arabia to Tripoli was severed. To placate King Hussein, America began selling arms to Jordan and mounting covert operations against Iraq, including an MKULTRA operation in which the infamous CIA officer, Dr. Sidney Gottlieb sent, from India, a handkerchief laced with poison to Colonel Kassem.
According to CIAnik Seymour Hersh in his JFK-bashing book, The Dark Side of Camelot (page 194): “the (CIA’s Technical Services Division) created a poisoned handkerchief that was mailed with the approval of the agency’s top management to the home of General Abdul Karim Kassem, the military strongman of Iraq. Kassem had seized power in a bloody coup and, to the dismay of the U.S., immediately restored diplomatic relations with the Soviet Union and lifted a ban on the Communist Party in Iraq. Sidney Gottlieb came up with the idea of infecting a handkerchief and mailing it to Iraq via the CIA station in New Delhi, India. ‘It was not an assassination,’ Gottlieb told (Hersh) in an interview. ‘They [the CIA’s Near East division] just wanted him to get sick for a long time. I went to (CIA Deputy Director of Plans, Richard) Bissell and he said go ahead.’
“Others in the agency saw it differently. One senior officer, in an interview for this book, revealed that the men running the Near East division were interested in getting rid of General Kassem permanently.”
(Incidentally, in a Frontline story aired on 25 January 2000, titled The Survival of Saddam, it was revealed that Saddam Hussein, then an up-and-coming CIA asset and dictator, and other members of the Ba’ath party worked with “the Americans” to overthrow General Kassem. According to Frontline, “With CIA help, the Iraqi Ba’ath Party seized power in 1963. General Kassem was killed in the coup. The CIA provided lists of suspected communists for Ba’ath Party hit squads, who liquidated at least 800 people. Saddam Hussein rushed home to join in as a interrogator, torturer and killer.”)
So, if the FBI is looking for motive and method (meaning modus operandi), the CIA must rate as a prime suspect in the anthrax black valentines that are currently being sent across the country. The motive, of course, is to keep the threat of terrorism alive and widespread, so more assaults can be made on our Civil Liberties, thus strengthening the National Security elite. The method of sending envelopes packed with poison, as we know, was developed and perfected by the CIA.
Over to you, Governor Ridge. CP
Douglas Valentine writes frequently for CounterPunch. He is the author of The Phoenix Program, the only comprehensive account of the CIA’s torture and assassination operation in Vietnam, as well as TDY a chilling novel about the CIA and the drug trade.
كتب Leader Abdul Karim Kassem and his appointment with history (83,279 كتاب)
يمر الـARVD عادةً بفترة طويلة لاعرضية. وبالرغم من أنه مرض موروث، إلا أن المرضى في سني المراهقة قد لاتظهر لديهم أي من علامات الـARVD من خلال الفحوصات العامة.
ترتبط تظاهرات المرض في العديد من المرضى بالتسرّع البطيني VT، كالخفقانات، خفّة الرأس، أو الإغماء syncope. في حين قد يعاني البعض الآخر من أعراض وعلامات ترتبط بقصور البطين الأيمن، كالوذمة في الأطراف السفلية، أو من الاحتقان الكبدي مع ارتفاع في خمائر الكبد. ولسوء الحظ، قد يكون الموت المفاجئ هو التظاهر الأول للمرض.
يعتبر الـARVD مرضاً مترقّياً. وبمرور الوقت، تزداد إصابة البطين الأيمن، وتقود إلى قصور البطين الأيمن، حيث يصاب هذا الأخير بالقصور قبل تتأثّر وظيفة البطين الأيسر. عموماً، وفي الوقت الذي تظهر فيه لدى المرضى علامات القصور البطيني الأيمن، ستكون الإصابة النسيجية للبطين الأيسر قد تطوّرت. وفي النهاية، سيصاب البطين الأيسر، مايقود إلى قصور كلا البطينين. قد تصبح أعراض وعلامات قصور البطين الأيمن واضحة، وتتضمّن قصور القلب الاحتقاني CHF، الرجفان الأذيني AF، وزيادة في معدّل حدوث الحوادث الصمّية الخثرية.
Yesterday I put up a piece about American hypocrisy in the allegations that Putin was blackmailing Donald Trump, when the Americans themselves interfered in the Russian elections in 1996 in order to secure Boris Yeltsin’s election as Russian president. This was, however, hardly the first time America had intervened in the domestic politics of a foreign country. William Blum devotes two chapters to this in his book, Rogue State: A Guide to the World’s Only Superpower. In one he lists the various interventions America has made in other countries, including invasions and military coups, and in the other cases where America has interfered with the conduct of elections in order to secure a win for their favoured candidates.
Both of these are very long and ignominious lists. Here’s part 1 of a list of foreign interventions by the US.
Aiding Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang against Mao’s Communists.
Backing French Socialist party against the Communists, using Corsican mobsters to attack Communist party and Communist-aligned trade unionists.
Marshall Islands 1946-58
Indigenous people of Bikini Atoll removed from the island in order to make way for nuclear tests.
Backing Conservative Christian Democrats to keep the Socialists and Communists out of power.
Backing neo-Fascists and creating intelligence unit for them in the civil war against the Communists.
Military actions against the left-wing Huk forces.
Korean War. However, afterwards US backed Conservatives, who had collaborated with the Japanese, and Fascist dictators, also committed atrocities against fleeing civilians.
Backing anti-Communist guerillas, most of whom were collaborators with the Nazis and Italian Fascists.
Eastern Europe 1948-1956
Head of CIA Allen Dulles deliberately heightened paranoia in the eastern bloc, causing hundreds of thousands of imprisonments, purge trials and murders by the Communist regimes.
Lengthy campaign of terrorism, dirty tricks and sabotage against East Germany.
Prime Minister Mossadegh overthrown by CIA and British led coup, as dared nationalise what is now British Petroleum oilfields.
CIA backed Fascist coup against democratic socialist Jacobo Arbenz for nationalising plantations owned by American company, United Fruit. Result: forty years of terror, with 200,000 people murdered.
Costa Rica mid-1950s and 1970-1
Attempted assassination of liberal democratic president, Jose Figueres, because considered too soft on the left, and for making his nation the first in Central America to establish diplomatic links with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe and questioning American foreign policy, like the invasion of Cuba.
Middle East 1956-58
Attempts to overthrow the Syrian government, shows of force in Mediterranean against opposition to US-backed governments in Jordan and Lebanon, landing of 14,000 troops in Lebanon, and attempts to overthrow and assassinate Egyptian president Gamal Nasser.
Attempts to manipulate elections, assassinate, blackmail and start a civil war to overthrow President Sukarno. Sukarno neutral in Cold War, went on trips to China and USSR, nationalised private property of Dutch colonialists, and did not crack down on the Communist party, which was then engaged on electoral path to power.
Trained troops of notorious dicator Papa Doc Duvalier, and destroy attempted coup against him by Haitians, Cubans and other Latin Americans.
Western Europe 1950s-1960s
Granting of American money through charities and so on to various groups and organisations in pursuit of American anti-Communist, anti-Socialist policies.
British Guiana/Guyana 1953-64
Attempts to force out of office democratically elected socialist premier, Cheddi Jagan by America and Britain.
Long campaign against nationalist leader General Abdul Karim Kassem after he overthrew the monarchy and established a republic. USA and Turkey drew up plan to invade this dropped in favour of arming Kurds, as well as assassination attempts. Kassem helped set up OPEC and created nationalised oil company. Kassem was finally overthrown in a Ba’ath coup, which also led to a clampdown on the Communist party, which was backed by both America and Britain.
Soviet Union 1940s-1960s
Cold War campaigns of espionage, propaganda and sabotage, backing of resistance movements against USSR.
Overthrow of Prince Sihanouk enabling Pol Pot and Khmer Rouge to gain power.
Armed insurrection and bombing against reformist left, led by Pathet Lao party.
Armed forced against insurgents.
Overthrow of president Jose Maria Velasco for not clamping down on left and not following US policy against Cuba.
Congo/Zaire, 1960-65, 1977-8
Overthrow of Patrice Lumumba in favour of dictator and mass-murderer Mobutu Sese Seko.
Backed French military coup in Algeria to stop country becoming independent. Also hoped repercussions would overthrow De Gaulle, who was blocking American attempts to dominate NATO.
Backed military dictatorship which overthrew President Joao Goulart for being too independent and friendly towards Communists, despite the fact that Goulart millionaire devout Roman Catholic.
Military action against leftist guerillas
Dominican Republic 1963-5
Overthrow of liberal president, Juan Bosch.
Attempts to overthrow Communist regime.
Overthrow of Sukarno and bloody suppression of Communists by successor, General Suharto.
Overthrow of Kwame Nkrumah
Dirty War against Tupamaro leftists guerillas.
Long campaign against democratic Communist, Salvador Allende, culminating in Fascist coup of General Pinochet.
Intervention against liberal Greek president George Papandreou, as he wanted to take Greece out of NATO and declare Greek neutrality in Cold War. Overthrown in the Fascist coup that inaugurated the rule of the Colonels.
South Africa 1960s-1980s
Assistance to South African apartheid government against African Nationalist Congress, which, amongst other things, led to the arrest and imprisonment of Nelson Mandela.
Military campaign against President Victor Paz for supporting Cuba.
Operations to have Gough Whitlam, the leader of the Aussie Labor party, removed by America and British, ’cause he was opposed to Vietnam.
CIA backed Kurds, not for them to get autonomy, but to distract Iraqi army and make sure they didn’t overthrow the Shah of Iran.
comprehensive series of measures, including shows of force by NATO warships, against radical policies proposed by the army officers, who overthrew the previous Fascist dictatorship of General Salazar.
East Timor 1975-99
Backing of Indonesian invasion, which killed 1/3 of the island’s population.
Angolan civil war, which was basically proxy war between US, China and South Africa on one hand and USSR and Cuba on the other.
Effects of Qasim’s rule
The 1958 Revolution can be heralded as a watershed in Iraqi politics, not just because of its obvious political implications (e.g. the abolition of monarchy, republicanism, and paving the way for Ba’athist rule) but due to domestic reform. Despite its shortcomings, Qasim’s rule helped to implement a number of positive domestic changes that benefitted Iraqi society.
The revolution brought about sweeping changes in the Iraqi agrarian sector. Reformers dismantled the old feudal structure of rural Iraq: for example the 1933 'Law of Rights and Duties of Cultivators' and the Tribal Disputes Code were replaced, benefiting Iraq’s peasant population and ensuring a fairer process of law. The Agrarian Reform Law (September 30, 1958 [ 37 ] ) attempted a large-scale redistribution of landholdings and placed ceilings on ground rents the land was more evenly distributed amongst peasants who, due to the new rent laws, received around 55% to 70% of their crop. [ 37 ] Despite the positive intentions of the Agrarian Reform Law, its implementation proved relatively unsuccessful due to disagreements between the lower classes and the landed middle classes, as well as a time consuming implementation.
Qasim attempted to bring about greater equality for women in Iraq. In December 1959 he promulgated a significant revision of the personal status code particularly that regulating family relations. [ 37 ] Polygamy was outlawed, and minimum ages for marriage were also outlined, with 18 being the minimum age (except for special dispensation when it could be lowered by the court to 16 [ 37 ] . Women were also protected from arbitrary divorce. The most revolutionary reform was a provision in article 74 giving women equal rights in matters of inheritance. [ 37 ] The laws applied to Sunni and Shi’a alike, yet despite their liberal intent they received much opposition and did not survive Qasim’s government.
Education was greatly expanded under the Qasim regime. The education budget was raised from approximately 13 million Dinars in 1958 to 24 million Dinar in 1960 and enrollment was increased. Attempts were also made in 1959 and 1961 to introduce economic planning to benefit social welfare investing in housing, healthcare and education, whilst reforming the agrarian Iraqi economy along an industrial model. However these changes were not truly implemented before Qasim’s removal.
Qasim was also responsible for the nationalisation of the Iraqi oil industry. Public Law 80 dispossessed the IPC of 99.5% of its concession territory in Iraq and placed it in the hands of the newly formed Iraq National Oil Company taking many of Iraq’s oilfields out of foreign hands. [ 37 ]
The Queen’s Favorite
Wikimedia Commons The Queen and her son, King Edward VII, 1900.
Even the royal family started to get jealous of the Queen’s Munshi. He was closer to the queen than even her own children. He traveled with her through Europe, was given the best seats at banquets and operas, and the queen commissioned several portraits of him. In time, she even had him knighted.
Karim also had no reservation about using his station to help his family. He asked the Queen to provide his father a pension and his previous employer a promotion. Besides his boldness, though, the court was troubled by his ethnicity.
Here was the Queen of England treating an Indian like an equal and seating him at a table of superiors, so thought her court. She would spend the better part of each day in his room. She even fluffed his pillows and examined the boils on his neck.
Her son Arthur complained that having an Indian stand beside made for “a very conspicuous figure among the gentry.” It was undignified, he protested, to treat an Indian of common birth like royalty.
The Queen’s secretary, Fritz Ponsonby, agreed. “If it were not for our protest, I don’t know where she would stop,” he wrote in a letter begging a fellow secretary to dig up dirt on Karim to remove him from his station. “But it is no use, for the queen says that it is ‘race prejudice’ and that we are jealous of the poor Munshi.”
Her doctor, Sir James Reid, was the most hostile of all. “You are from a very low class and never can be a gentleman,” he fumed in a letter to Karim. He wanted Karim to hand over every letter the queen had sent him. “If the queen were to die and any letters of hers were found in your possession no mercy will be shown you.”
He would prove to be right on that point.
Victoria and Abdul (2017)
Not exactly, or at least not entirely. Prior to arriving in England, Abdul Karim had worked as a prison clerk in Uttar Pradesh, India, which had been under formal British rule for close to three decades. According to the Victoria and Abdul true story, the jail's superintendent, John Tyler, had met the Queen at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886, where he showcased carpets the inmates had made as part of a rehabilitation program. The Queen was impressed and asked Tyler to select two Indian attendants to help her at her Golden Jubilee, which marked fifty years of being on the throne. She wanted help communicating with the Indian dignitaries in attendance. In part due to his tallness, Abdul Karim, then 24, was chosen. In the movie, he first presents a newly minted ceremonial coin to the 81-year-old Queen. -Smithsonian Magazine
Did Queen Victoria's staff really bring her a mango from India?
Did Abdul Karim teach Queen Victoria Urdu?
Yes. "Queen Victoria learned Urdu for 13 years," says author Shrabani Basu. "That's a big deal, especially these days when you have so much racism around, so much anti-Muslim feeling." In her research for her book Victoria and Abdul: The True Story of the Queen's Closest Confidant, Windsor Castle gave Basu access to the 13 surviving volumes of Victoria's Hindustani journals, in which the Queen would practice writing in the Hindustani language of Urdu. At the end of notes to her Urdu teacher, Abdul Karim, she would often finish with "your loving mother" or "dearest mother," revealing the closeness of their relationship. -TIME
"Am learning a few words of Hindustani to speak to my servants," Victoria noted in her diaries. "It is a great interest to me, for both the language and the people." She also insisted that Karim speed up his English lessons, so that they could communicate better. -Vanity Fair
Did Queen Victoria's relationship with Abdul Karim ever become romantic?
Like in the Victoria and Abdul movie, our fact-checking of the true story confirmed that there is no evidence to suggest that her relationship with Karim ever turned romantic. After author Shrabani Basu was contacted by Karim's family (who she had almost given up looking for), they shared his diaries with her in 2010. His writings suggested nothing romantic. However, his friendship with Queen Victoria was still unusually intimate, as evidenced by the correspondence displayed below. The two even spent a night together at Glassat Shiel, a remote cottage in Scotland where she had previously stayed with her late servant John Brown (another subject of controversy). -Smithsonian Magazine
"I am so very fond of him," Victoria wrote of Karim. "He is so good and gentle and understanding . . . and is a real comfort to me." Author Basu told The Telegraph that Karim spoke to Victoria not as a Queen, but rather as a human being and he was one of the only people in her life to do so. Her own children even kept their distance from her. Despite their closeness, Basu doesn't believe that they had a physical relationship.
Was Abdul Karim married?
Yes. Karim was married to Rashidan Karim. When he expressed that he wanted to go back to Agra to be with his wife, Victoria invited her to come to England to live with her husband. She gave them homes on all of the key royal estates in the United Kingdom and land in India. She even offered them conception advice, telling Karim and his wife, "She should be careful at the particular time every month not to tire herself." Victoria likely had some knowledge on the subject since she had nine children of her own. -The Telegraph
Was Queen Victoria really the anti-racist progressive that the movie makes her out to be?
Not likely. When it comes to historical accuracy, the biggest issue that most critics have with the film is its portrayal of Victoria as a progressive who holds strong anti-racist views. The movie proposes that her appointment of a Muslim to a key position in the Royal Household was a win for diversity, a cause for which she is depicted as a champion. Certainly the current political climate may have helped to shape this, positioning Victoria (Judi Dench) as the righteous leader who denounces racism and intolerance. Critics haven't held back, calling the movie's characterization of Victoria "peculiar," "laughable," and "fiction," citing that the film attempts to lecture us about today's Islamophobia. But what do we know about Victoria and this time period that makes the movie's characterization of Victoria untrue?
This Era in England's history is known as the Raj era, a period that was largely defined by imperial oppression of India and its citizens, who were under the direct rule of Britain. The film ignores the subjugation going on outside of Britain and the palace walls. Instead, it narrows the focus and keeps our eyes on the relationship between Queen Victoria and Abdul, not the United Kingdom and its colonies, which the Queen oversaw. She had in fact been in power during such events as the Indian Rebellion of 1857, which found rebels in India rising up against Crown rule, which up until that point had been enforced by the British East India Company and its private army. A good number of Indians were unhappy with steep land taxes and invasive British-based social reforms.
Even after the rebellion (which the British suppressed), when Britain ruled directly, taxes were still high and the British depleted Indian revenues to fund an inflated bureaucracy (including in London). A great racial divide emerged between Indians and the class-conscious Britons. The divide lasted until the end of the British Raj in 1947, long after Queen Victoria's passing. So if the movie makes her out to be a champion against racial intolerance, it can certainly be argued that she didn't do enough to improve racial equality outside the palace walls. Yet, we must also remember that the Queen, who was known for her high moral standards, had influence but little direct political power since the United Kingdom was already a seasoned constitutional monarchy by that point. -BBC
Was the real Abdul Karim as saintly as the movie portrays him?
No. In the movie, Abdul Karim is portrayed as wise and passive instead of ambitious and at times self-serving. "Whatever Her Majesty wants" is the tone of his character. In researching the Victoria and Abdul true story, we discovered that, like everyone else, the real Karim indeed had flaws.
For example, the movie implies that Queen Victoria introduced the idea of Karim being knighted herself to a shocked Royal House. In reality, Karim had worked tirelessly to convince Victoria to give him a knighthood. Another less savory side of Karim that the movie turns away from is when Victoria's doctor, Dr. James Reid (Paul Higgins), breaks the news to her that Karim, a married man, is riddled with gonorrhea. As Vulture critic David Edelstein noted, the movie pushes too much political correctness for its own good. Karim (Ali Fazal) is so saintly that he comes across as two dimensional and boring.
Was Queen Victoria aware of the racist attitudes in the palace regarding her relationship with Karim?
Yes. This was confirmed in a letter written by her assistant private secretary Fritz Ponsonby, who complained of her preferential treatment of Karim. He concluded by sharing the Queen's thoughts on the matter, "the Queen says it is 'race prejudice' and that we are jealous of the poor Munshi." The term "Munshi" is a Persian word that in British India came to mean a native language teacher or secretary employed by Europeans.
After her death in 1901, did the Queen's family really try to erase all evidence of her friendship with Abdul Karim?
Yes. In fact, it took a full 100 years before journalist and author Shrabani Basu came upon a clue of the forgotten friendship. While on vacation with her family in 2003, Basu stumbled upon a painting of Karim (pictured) in Queen Victoria and Prince Albert's former summer home on the Isle of Wight in the U.K. It struck her that Karim, supposedly a servant, had been painted beautifully in red and gold as a nobleman with a book in his hand. She discovered two more pictures in Queen Victoria's dressing area, one was of her close friend John Brown and the other was of Karim. "He was obviously someone very special to her," says Basu. -TIME
It wasn't an accident that little evidence remained of Queen Victoria's close friendship with Abdul Karim. After her 1901 passing, her family members, along with others in the Royal House, scrambled to destroy all traces of her closeness to Karim. According to The Telegraph, Victoria's son Bertie (King Edward VII) quickly ordered that all letters between Victoria and Karim found on the royal grounds be burned. Karim was evicted from the home Victoria had given him and he was deported back to India. Her daughter Beatrice embarked on the arduous task of erasing all mention of Karim from the Queen's journals, which encompassed more than a decade of her writings since that's how long he had been a part of her life. -Vanity Fair
Why was Queen Victoria's friendship with Abdul Karim so controversial?
Obviously, it wasn't merely because they were of a different social status. Historians note that Victoria's family and staff exhibited both racial and social prejudices. Compounding that was their jealousy of Karim. He was afforded privileges they weren't, such as traveling with her through Europe honors titles personal gifts a private carriage and the best seats at banquets and opera houses. As indicated in the previous question, she also commissioned several portraits of Karim, in addition to recruiting local journalists to write about him. She hosted his visiting family members and even helped Karim's dad secure a pension. Since the passing of her Scottish confidante John Brown in 1883, Karim was the only servant who she welcomed into her inner circle. -Vanity Fair
For the dark-skinned Karim to eat at the same table as the white servants was intolerable, notes historian Carolly Erickson in her book Her Little Majesty. The idea that he partook in daily duties alongside them was seen as an outrage.
Did Judi Dench play Queen Victoria before?
Yes. Dench starred as Victoria 20 years earlier in the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown, which explored the close relationship she had with her Scottish servant and confidante John Brown following the death of her husband Albert. The movie's title refers to the nickname that other staff members gave the Queen behind her back. Like her friendship with Abdul Karim, her relationship with John Brown, portrayed by Billy Connolly in the film, was not approved of by the royal court. However, it wasn't nearly as detested, mainly because Brown was a white European and not a dark-skinned Indian. -Vanity Fair
Kassem, Abdul Karim
Abdul Karim Kassem (äbdŏŏl´ kärēm´ kässēm´) , 1914, Iraqi general and politician. A graduate (1934) of the Iraqi military academy, he attended the army staff college. His outstanding bravery, shown in campaigns against the Kurds and in the Palestinian war of 1948, won him many military decorations. He organized the military coup that in July, 1958, overthrew the Iraqi monarchy and established Kassem as premier of the new republic. An Arab nationalist, he quelled a pro-Communist uprising in 1959. After this, Kassem's power and influence steadily deteriorated. He was overthrown and executed by military and civilian members of the Ba'ath party in Feb., 1963.
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