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The Clinical and Educational Perspective
Advanced Practice Geriatric Nurses
For almost 35 years, the overwhelming emphasis in geriatric nursing has been to prepare a cadre of advanced practice geriatric nurse specialists. In 1966, Duke University started the first gerontological master's program. Advanced practice geriatric nurses are registered nurses who have completed a master's program to specialize as geriatric nurse practitioners, geriatric nurse clinical specialists, and geropsychiatric nurses. These advanced practice geriatric nurses work in collaboration with geriatric physicians and social workers to render care to older adults and serve as faculty to prepare increasingly large numbers of geriatric nurses. Their practice is recognized through state and professional certification, and they are reimbursed by both Medicaid and Medicare.
Several studies have underscored the national imperative for advanced practice nurses prepared to care for America's older adults ( 3) ( 4) . The need for advanced practice nurses with geriatric skills is particularly dramatic among the “oldest-old,” those persons 85 and older who constitute the fastest growing segment of our older population and who are most likely to require management of multiple chronic conditions and functional losses. The majority of these older adults have a disproportionate number of untoward acute health events and chronic illnesses that require primary, acute, and long-term care ( 5) . Normal age changes and the increased risk of illness associated with advanced age exacerbate poor health in this group of older adults. On average, 53% of people 80 and older have one or more severe disabilities, 79% have at least one chronic disability, and 36% have moderate or severe memory impairment ( 5) .
In the face of regulatory barriers, and a general antipathy on the part of health care professionals to geriatrics, advanced practice geriatric nurses have achieved an impressive record in managing the complex health needs of older adults. Evidence is strong that advanced practice geriatric nurses, often as part of geriatric teams, ensure quality care to older people and significantly improve health outcomes in ambulatory ( 6) , acute ( 7) , ( 8) , and institutional long-term care ( 9) ( 10) ( 11) ( 12) .
Yet, despite a 30-year effort on the part of academic and professional nursing organizations ( 13) ( 14) ( 15) ( 16) , and substantial federal support for training, the number of advanced practice geriatric nurses remains very small. The 63 programs that prepare advanced geriatric nurses graduate a mean of three students annually ( 16) ( 17) . Since 1991, only approximately 4200 nurses nationally have been certified by the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) as advanced practice geriatric nurses (GNPs: 3400 GCNS: 800) (M. Smolensky, Executive Director, The American Nurses Credentialing Center, January 2002). Because they are so few in number, and because they practice predominantly in institutional long-term care and in urban settings, advanced practice geriatric nurses exert a minimal impact on the health care needs of the majority of older adults.
Adult and Family Advanced Practice Nurses
Given the failure to attract large numbers of nurses to the specialization of geriatrics, during the past few years, there has evolved a growing appreciation within nursing that adult and family practice advanced practice nurses represent an untapped pool of health care providers for older adults. Currently, approximately 12,500 nurses are ANCC certified as advanced practice adult practitioners, and 24,400 are advanced practice nurses certified in family practice (M. Smolensky, Executive Director, The American Nurses Credentialing Center, January 2002).
It is highly likely that the practice of these advanced practice nurses involves the care for large numbers of older adults. Older adults' use of health care services is very high. They make up 60% of all ambulatory visits, 48% of adult hospital admissions, 80% of home care visits, and 85% of all nursing home residents ( 18) . In home care, the fastest growing area of health care, in 1995, the 5600 Medicare-certified agencies made more than 38 million visits to 1.6 million Medicare beneficiaries 52% of these were nursing visits ( 19) . On any given day, more than 1.7 million older persons are cared for in 16,700 long-term care facilities. One in three Americans will spend some time in such a facility prior to death 1% of persons aged 65 and older but 19% of persons 85 and older currently reside in long-term care facilities ( 20) .
The field of geriatrics/gerontology has evolved to the point where there now exist recognized standards for “best practice” in care of older adults ( 6) ( 16) ( 21) ( 22) . Nevertheless, there is general consensus that the health care that most older people receive fails to adhere to agreed-upon quality standards ( 7) ( 23) ( 24) .
While lacking definitive data, a cursory review of curricula in programs preparing adult and family advanced practice nurses suggests that geriatric content and best practices, for example best practices in relationship to pain management and use of physical restraints, have been minimally addressed. Thus, there are several new initiatives with the specific goal to introduce concepts of best practice in geriatric care into the adult and family practice nursing educational curriculum ( 17) . These initiatives include the development of nationally recognized competencies in geriatrics for all programs preparing advanced practice nurses likely to work with older adults (adult, family, women's health, critical care, and psychiatric advanced practice nurses). They also include the development of curriculum materials, ongoing professional education, and a push to encourage the creation of programs for adult, family, women's health, critical care, and psychiatric advanced practice nurses to acquire certification in geriatric nursing as a second credential to their existing area of specialization.
“Gerontologicalizing” the Practicing Nurse
In addition to focusing on master's prepared advanced practice nurses, during the past 5 years, the profession has slowly embraced a strategy to prepare all practicing nurses with basic geriatric competencies as a way to ensure that older adults experience appropriate nursing care. Virtually all nurses in the course of their careers care for older adults: providing preventive and wellness programs helping patients manage multiple chronic conditions and deal with increased mental and physical frailty and facilitating a peaceful death. It is, therefore, imperative that these nurses have basic competence to deliver care to older adults.
To date, there have been two initiatives to ensure geriatric competency in the practicing nurse. The first is to ensure geriatric competency in all students who graduate from a nursing program. Nursing schools have only recently begun to include geriatrics in their curricula, and most still do not have geriatrics as a significant and integral part ( 18) . The Hartford Institute initially championed this initiative for geriatric nursing. Working collaboratively with the American Association of Colleges of Nursing, the national organization that accredits schools of nursing, the Hartford Institute developed geriatric competencies and curriculum materials for baccalaureate nursing programs, activities that have now been expanded through additional support from the Hartford Foundation (www.hartfordign.org).
The second initiative, which is only now developing, involves preparing all 2.2 million practicing nurses and the 40,000 registered nurses newly licensed each year with competency in geriatrics. Most new graduates and virtually all practicing nurses have had inadequate preparation in geriatrics. Practicing nurses receive little continuing education in geriatrics. It is only recently that the Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, the accrediting body for hospitals and nursing homes, has required that their member facilities begin to demonstrate age-specific competencies of their personnel.
Initial efforts to ensure geriatric competency in the practicing nurse have focused on the organizations representing the elite group of professional nurses who have an interest and expertise in a specific area of nursing, such as oncology, emergency room, rehabilitation, and intensive care. There are 78 nursing specialty associations that collaborate in a national forum called the Nursing Organization Liaison Forum (NOLF). NOLF functions as a structure of the American Nurses Association. Eliminating the obvious specialties such as pediatrics and midwifery, 60 of these 78 associations, representing a total of 400,000 nurses, focus on a care specialty with a direct impact on older adults. The membership size of these nursing organizations ranges from several hundred to more than 62,000. Ensuring geriatric competency in specialty nurses offers an opportunity to make substantial inroads into “gerontologizing” practicing nurses. Effort to introduce geriatric competencies has involved presentations and a booth to create a geriatric presence at national conferences, providing ready-made materials for use in organization newsletters, journals, and web sites, and creating and/or supporting geriatric focus groups or special interest group that allows for formalizing a sustained interest in geriatrics (www.hartfordign.org).
The Business of Home Care
Beginning in the late 1980s and continuing through much of the 1990s, home care became big business. Through the late 1990s, home care, though a relatively small portion of Medicare's budget overall, was the fastest growing component of that budget, with expenditures increasing at a rate of approximately 20% per year, from $3.5 billion in 1989 to $19 billion by 1997 ( 4) .
This increase in expenditures drew the attention of policymakers who were concerned that home care, originally written into Medicare legislation as a supplement to acute hospital care for patients with skilled nursing needs, was fast becoming a de facto long-term care, nursing home-type benefit for frail older persons with chronic illnesses ( 5) . In addition, this growth ultimately drew the attention of federal regulators, who were concerned that the rapid increase in home care expenditures, the increase in the number of home health agencies entering the field, and significant geographic discrepancies in the use of the benefit were at least the result of insufficient supervision of the benefit by physicians, if not outright fraud and abuse.
The federal regulators responded with the Balanced Budget Amendment (BBA) of 1997. The BBA established a prospective payment reimbursement system to home health agencies, reduced reimbursement for durable medical equipment and certain therapeutic interventions ( 6) , and resulted in a marked decrease in Medicare expenditures for home care that will be detailed later. In addition, the BBA mandated the collection of data about home care patients using the Outcomes and Assessment Information Set (OASIS). Initially developed as a means to provide a picture of the home care patient's situation and improve the quality of home care, OASIS is also being used to determine the prospective payment schedules for home care patients. There have been problems with OASIS related to privacy, costs, and data management, but use of OASIS has been reported to be associated with improved health status outcomes ( 7) . However, OASIS may be limited in that it is not a comprehensive assessment tool, such as the Minimum Data Set for Home Care, and it lacks the ability to track patients across various sites of care ( 8) ( 9) .
Discovery Life Mars – A Look In To Home After Home
- Hello and welcome!
Today I would like to share with you insights and hidden facts about our history. I will share with you the truth of the history behind Mars and facts that have been hidden from us for so long. Helping people to learn the truth about our history will bring more power and awareness to each person seeking truth. I have found that shearing the information I have learned with others gives people an eye-opening experience that also enlightens them. We all deserve the knowledge that in turn makes us more powerful. I want to be your guide in the journey of enlightenment and power through knowledge.
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The Discovery Of Water Can Lead To Life On Mars
– Images Of Discovery –
Mainstream science believes that between 3 to 4 million years ago Earth was very much like Mars is today, Uninhabitable and without an atmosphere. The Mars Reconnaissance orbiter reached its destination on March 10th 2006 it began orbiting Mars 186 miles from the surface and eventually sent back to Earth 200,000 images of the surface of Mars. On September 28th 2015 scientist from NASA reveal that from images sent back from the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter they have now discovered water on Mars, and if water can exist on or under the surface of Mars then the question is also asked can life exist there as well? It is a proven fact now that microbial life has been found on Martian meteorites some scientist even propose that life on Earth started and came from meteorites like these. They also propose that extraterrestrial’s mite have had a hand in the manipulation of some of these meteorites. Some mainstream scientist have proposed Martians to be the ones being described in the Hebrew stories of the falling angels.
– Martian Artifacts –
When the Mars rover lands on Mars it takes 554 solar days for the rover to send back pictures to Earth. After a close look at these pictures scientist believe that in these pictures they see human statues, man like doorways, a sarcophagus, a Buda statue and a cross. They even believe that artifacts can be found there if every given the chance to look. They believe they see pyramid structures in these pictures that are similar to the pyramid structures found on Earth. A structure in the shape of a Sphinx has been found in these pictures as well they have found structures in which the layout matches the layout of the Pleiades star cluster in space, this is something we see in many different places on planet Earth structures resembling the stars above.
Technology Used In Discovery Of Life On Mars
– Something On Mars –
The Mars curiosity rover is a 2.5 billion dollar machine with a camera that has the ability to turn around and help scientist diagnose itself. It can take soil samples, air samples, and take pictures. Fifty days into its mission the rover sends back a picture which seems to show a shadow of a human like creature working on the rover. There are stories of people who formally worked for NASA that say that NASA has pictures that they suppress before they release them to the public or simply never release them at all to the public. They believe that humans or other creature’s mite already be on Mars and that NASA is covering it all up.
– Secret Files –
Gary McKennon a Scottish hacker hacked into NASA’s database and found a file that had a list in it, a list of what they called Non Terrestrial Officers. These were officers that worked and lived off of the planet Earth. There are proven documents that indicate Wernher von Braun the man who’s behind the technology in the rockets used to get us to the moon had plans of getting us to Mars sometime before ever considering the moon as a target.
Like unusual facts about history? Have an interest in intriguing artefacts and exhibits? Check out this link for more information. https://www.ripleys.com/attractions/
– Colonizing Mars –
In Torrance California 2015 Elon Musk and his board members release to the world that Spacex a privet space agency had always had its target on helping humanity colonize Mars. Many people believe going to and colonizing Mars is the way we should be preparing for the inevitable disaster that will bring the end of life on planet Earth and there are many ways in which this can happen.
A Discovery Look Into Life On Mars
– Plans For Mars –
Soon in the future we will send astronauts into space on a 150 day journey to the red planet Mars 128,000,000 miles away 200 times the distance of the moon from Earth. It will be the farthest journey any man or woman has ever traveled. The colonization process will begin with robots, robots that will build habitats, rovers and life support units. The next step will be to send food and supplies then humans will be sent to begin living their lives as Martians. Gravity on Mars is less powerful then gravity on Earth so it will be very different moving around on Mars. The temperatures on Mars will be very different as well which can be a deadly situation for humans so we will have to find ways around that. Once we figured out some obstacles that can occur we will begin to grow food in habitats, but the ultimate goal will be to terraform the planet. To terraform a planet means to change all environmental structure on that planet to better fit our needs so we can live on the planet more naturally.
– Terraforming Mars –
Scientist have come up with many ways that we can terraform Mars one popular way is by melting the ice caps on the planet. This process will release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and thicken the atmosphere. This process will take about 300 years to accomplish but missions are already on the way. According to mainstream science terraforming a planet just mite be the way life got started on planet Earth. They believe that creation myth stories like the Book Of Genesis in the Bible can be seen as a step by step guide to terraforming planet Earth.
Changes In Discovery To Life On Mars
– Humans More Adapted To Mars –
Resent studies in sports medicine show us that the human body makes two kinds of fat. One fat is a good kind of fat and the other is not a good kind. Studies show that if the temperature is brought down to around 67 degrees your body will begin to create the good kind of fat and not the bad fat. On Mars (today) at the equator in the summertime the temperature is about 67 degrees putting in place that at one point the entire atmosphere on Mars most likely sat at an average temperature of 67 degrees. Another fact to look at is that when astronauts go out to space their circadian rhythms also described as body clocks change from a 24-hour day to a 24.9 hour day and that is the rotational period of a single day on the planet Mars. Our bodies are naturally tuned to the planet Mars and not to Earth.
– Change In Appearance –
On 2012 in the university of Tennessee many forensic anthropologists examining human skulls that dated back to mid 18 hundreds to mid 1980s found that human skulls have become taller, larger, and more narrow within the past one hundred years. Many scientist believe that even more rapid changes will occur as future humans spend more of their lives living in outer space.
Discovery Life Mars Questions
– The Question –
What will we find when we get to Mars? Will we find a species that has been there for many years? Will we find remnants of human civilization being present there in the past? Once again mainstream science believes the answers to all these questions can be a pro founding yes once we get to the red planet we all know as Mars.
Like unusual facts about history? Have an interest in intriguing artefacts and exhibits? Check out this link for more information. https://www.ripleys.com/attractions/
|Film||U.S. release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Story by||Producer(s)|
|Back to the Future||July 3, 1985||Robert Zemeckis||Robert Zemeckis|
Back to the Future (1985) Edit
Seventeen-year-old Marty McFly is accidentally sent back in time from 26 October 1985 to 5 November 1955 in a time machine built from a DeLorean by eccentric scientist Emmett "Doc" Brown, when they are attacked and Doc is apparently killed by Libyan terrorists from whom he stole the plutonium that gives the flux capacitor the 1.21 gigawatts it needs to time-travel. Soon after his arrival in 1955, Marty's mother Lorraine falls in love with him, rather than with his father George McFly, threatening to cause a paradox that would result in Marty ceasing to exist. Without plutonium to power the time machine, Marty must find the 1955 Doc Brown to help him reunite his parents and return to 1985.
The efforts of Biff Tannen, George's bully and supervisor, further complicate Marty's situation until Marty successfully causes his parents to fall in love and simultaneously convinces George to finally stand up to Biff. Returning to the future via a lightning strike that powers the machine, Marty discovers a vastly improved situation for the McFly family, as a much more confident George has become an accomplished science fiction author, Marty's two older siblings have better lives, he owns the car of his dreams, and an apparently-softened Biff is now an auto detailer, rather than George's supervisor. Despite 1955 Doc's insistence on not knowing details of the future, a note Marty leaves in his pocket on 12 November 1955 prevents him from being killed by the terrorists. But in the film's final moments, Doc Brown appears in a modified version of the DeLorean and tells Marty and his girlfriend Jennifer Parker that they must travel to the future to fix a problem caused by Marty and Jennifer's kids.
Back to the Future Part II (1989) Edit
The series continues as Doc Brown travels with Marty and Jennifer to the year 2015, where he has discovered Marty's family is in ruins. Shortly after rectifying the situation, Marty buys a sports almanac containing the outcomes of 50 years (1950–2000) worth of sporting events to make easy money. However, Doc talks him out of it and throws the almanac in the trash bin, where the 2015 Biff Tannen finds it. A sleeping Jennifer has been taken by police to her future home, needing Marty and Doc to retrieve her before returning to 1985. While Marty and Doc are at the 2015 McFly home, 2015 Biff steals the DeLorean time machine and gives the book to his 1955 self just before he goes to the dance at the end of the first film. When Doc and Marty return to 1985, they find that Biff has used the sports almanac's knowledge for financial gain, which allows him to turn Courthouse Square into a casino with 27 floors, take over Hill Valley, get away with the murder of Marty's father, and later marry Marty's mother. Marty learns that Biff was given the book by 2015 Biff on November 12, 1955, so he and Doc go back to that date in order to steal the almanac from Biff before he can use it to destroy their lives. They accomplish this in a complex fashion, often crossing their own past selves' paths. When the duo is about to travel back to 1985, a lightning bolt strikes the DeLorean and activates the time circuits, sending Doc back to 1885 and leaving Marty stranded once again in 1955.
Back to the Future Part III (1990) Edit
After finding out that Doc Brown was trapped in 1885, Marty sets out to find the 1955 Doc to help him fix the DeLorean, which has been waiting for him in a mineshaft for seventy years, and restore it to working order. Learning that Doc gets shot in 1885 by Biff's great-grandfather, Buford "Mad Dog" Tannen, Marty travels back in time to save Doc (who has become a blacksmith) and bring him back to the future. Arriving in the middle of a melee between the United States Cavalry and American Indians, Marty is forced to flee to a cave, the uneven terrain tearing the DeLorean's fuel line in the process, emptying the fuel tank and rendering the engine useless. Marty convinces Doc to come back with him and find a way to get back to his time before it is too late. After several dramatic action scenes involving using a speeding locomotive to push the DeLorean to 88 miles per hour (142 km/h), Marty returns to 1985 without Doc Brown. When the DeLorean appears in 1985 on the same train track as planned, a modern train destroys the DeLorean, with Marty jumping out just in the nick of time. Marty reveals to Jennifer the time travel adventure, and they visit the scene of the wreckage of the DeLorean. He worries that Doc has been lost in the past forever, when suddenly Doc appears in a new time machine, modeled after a locomotive. When Marty asks if Doc is going to the future, Doc replies that he has "already been there." Doc's last words of wisdom are that nobody knows their future, so they "must make it a good one." The locomotive flies across the sky and disappears, ending the trilogy.
Co-writer and director Robert Zemeckis, who has final rights to all films in the Back to the Future franchise, has stated that he will block all attempts to remake or reboot the original film. Co-writer Bob Gale has stated that he did not wish to see another film in the series without the Marty McFly character nor any other actor than Michael J. Fox playing him, while acknowledging that Fox's current health condition would make this impossible. He illustrated this at a 2008 fan convention in Florida, stating "The idea of making another Back to the Future movie without Michael J. Fox – you know, that's like saying, 'I'm going to cook you a steak dinner and I'm going to hold the beef."  Gale also said that the Telltale video-game adaptation is the closest thing to what a fourth film could be like.  In an interview on October 21, 2015, the day of Marty McFly's purported arrival in the future, Christopher Lloyd stated that he would consider making a fourth film under the condition that the original cast and creative team returned, along with a story "worth telling".  The same day, Lloyd reprised his role as Doc Brown in a brief segment in which the character returns to announce a special message (titled "Doc Brown Saves the World"), explaining the discrepancy between reality and the future as depicted in the film.  In 2020, actor Tom Holland claimed in an interview with BBC Radio 1 that he was approached by an unnamed producer over a possible reboot of the franchise with him starring the lead role as Marty McFly (or a similarly new character). However, Holland stated he was reluctant to take up this offer as he described the existing films as "perfect films", though he would be interested in re-creating scenes from the films in a deep-fake homage video or short film. 
|Film||U.S. release date||Director(s)||Screenwriter(s)||Story by||Producer(s)|
|Doc Brown Saves the World||October 21, 2015||Robert Zemeckis||Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale||Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale||Bob Gale and Neil Canton|
Doc Brown Saves the World (2015) Edit
Doc Brown Saves the World is a 2015 direct-to-video short film directed by Robert Zemeckis and starring Christopher Lloyd as Emmett Brown. The short is featured on the 2015 Blu-ray and DVD release of the Back to the Future trilogy commemorating the franchise's 30th anniversary. The short was written by Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale and produced by Bob Gale and Neil Canton through Amblin Entertainment. Music for the short was performed [ clarification needed ] by Alan Silvestri. The short was released in the United States on October 20, 2015. [ citation needed ]
Emmett Brown is in an undisclosed location outside Hill Valley, California. He sets a video camera to track his body in order to videotape a message for Marty McFly. He explains that it is October 21, 2015, one hour before Marty, Doc, and Jennifer Parker arrive from 1985. He explains that when he traveled to the future, he discovered that there was a nuclear holocaust that occurred on October 21, 2045. He tracked it down to four inventions: the food hydrator, self-lacing shoes, the hoverboard, and the Mr. Fusion home energy reactor.
The former three inventions led to the world becoming lazy and obese, leading to widespread waste. The invention of hoverboards led to hovercars, which led to people throwing their trash out of the windows, causing a great trash storm in 2021. All of this trash needed to be disposed of, which led to 100 million Mr. Fusion units being manufactured. All of the Mr. Fusion units had a tiny nuclear reactor inside, and all of them detonated on October 21, 2045. The chain of events that led to this happening began less than twenty-four hours after Marty caused Griff Tannen to crash his hoverboard into the Hill Valley Courthouse when Griff was sentenced. He vowed to get back at the world for laughing at him and planned to do it through a company that he would found, GriffTech.
Doc holds up a tablet computer with a digital version of the Hill Valley Telegraph. On June 13, 2032, GriffTech invented a social media network called ThingMeme, which secured funding from Douglas J. Needles. ThingMeme allowed inanimate objects to post selfies on the internet. However, it was a scam, as it allowed Griff to gain access to every object on Earth. On the 30th anniversary of his arrest, on October 21, 2045, he uploaded a virus that was supposed to flash the word "butthead" on everything. However, it short-circuited the Mr. Fusion network, causing nuclear explosions in 100 million homes worldwide.
Doc Brown travels to an unknown date to ensure these inventions are never created, which will prevent the nuclear explosion. He leaves his camera on, which captures the inventions being erased from history. He arrives back in 2015, in a winter jacket and ski goggles, declaring that the mission was more complicated than he calculated, but declaring it a success. He holds up the tablet computer, where the headline on the Hill Valley Telegraph changes from "Griff Tannen Founds Grifftech" to "Griff Tannen Found Guilty".
Doc's excitement is short-lived, however, as he reaches in his pocket. He pulls out the Quantum Mind Jar, which he thought he disposed of in 2075. He is worried that not doing so will unravel everything they accomplished. The artificial intelligence of the Quantum Mind Jar tells Brown that they need to go back to the future, which he dismisses as he does not want to risk further time travel.
Another Emmett Brown then arrives, also declaring his experiment a success. Both versions of Brown, along with the artificial intelligence of the Quantum Mind Jar, are shocked at discovering that there are two Emmett Browns present.
|Series||Season||Episodes||First released||Last released||Showrunner(s)||Network(s)|
|Back to the Future||2||26||September 14, 1991||December 26, 1992||TBA||CBS, France 2|
Back to the Future (1991–1992) Edit
An animated television series, Back to the Future: The Animated Series, lasted two seasons, each featuring 13 episodes, and ran on CBS from September 14, 1991 to December 26, 1992.
1968′s Computerized School of the Future
The September, 1968 issue of Boys’ Life magazine ran an article by Samuel Moffat about the computerized school of tomorrow. Boys’ Life is a monthly magazine started by the Boy Scouts of America in 1911 and is still published today. Titled “Computerized School House,” the piece explores things like how the computer terminal of the future would be operated (the “electronic typewriter” finally gets its due), how students of the future may be assessed in classrooms, and how computers in schools from all over the United States might be connected:
Picture yourself in front of a television screen that has an electronic typewriter built in below it. You put on a set of headphones, and school begins.
“Good morning, John,” a voice says. “Today you’re going to study the verbs ‘sit’ and ‘set.’ Fill in the blank in each sentence with the proper word — ‘sit,’ sat’ or ‘set.’ Are you ready to go?”
“YES,” you peck out on the typewriter, and class gets under way.
The machine clicks away in front of you. “WHO HAS ____ THE BABY IN THE MUD?” it writes.
You type “SAT.” The machine comes right back: “SET.” You know you’re wrong, and the score confirms it: “SCORE: 00.”
The article goes on like this for some time, listing other possible questions that a computer might ask a schoolboy of the future. The piece continues by describing just how far-reaching advancements in computer technology may be once the ball starts rolling:
The computerized school house of the future (Wikimedia Commons)
A generation or so from now a truly modern school will have a room, or maybe several rooms, filled with equipment of the type shown on the cover of this issue. Even kindergarten children may be able to work some of the machines—machines such as automatically loading film and slide projectors, stereo tape recorders and record players, and electric typewriters or TV devices tied into a computer.
Customizable instruction seems to be the largest benefit touted by the article when it comes to every child having their own computer terminal:
The major advantage of the computer is that it helps solve the teacher’s biggest problem—individual instruction for every student. In a large class the teacher has to aim at the average level of knowledge and skill, but a computer can work with each child on the concepts and problems with which he needs the most help. A teacher can do this, too, but she often lacks the time required.
It goes on to say that kids can work at their own pace:
Computers combined with other teaching aids will provide schools with new flexibility in teaching. Students will be able to work at their own speeds in several subjects over a period of time. A boy might work all day on a science project, for instance, and complete his unit in that subject before some other children in his class had even begun. But they would be working on other subjects at their own speeds.
Connections not unlike the Internet were also envisioned in the article. Moffatt envisions a time when people from all around the United States would be connected through television and telephone wires. To put the timeline of networked computing into context, it would be another full year before the very first node-to-node message would be sent from UCLA to Stanford on October 29, 1969:
The electronic age also makes it possible to have the latest teaching materials immediately available even in outlying school districts. Television transmission and telephone cables bring pictures and computer programs from hundreds or thousands of miles away. Schools in Kentucky, Massachusetts, Mississippi, New York, Pennsylvania and West Virginia, for example, are serviced by computers in California. The students are linked to their “teachers” by long-distance telephone lines.
The piece ends with some prognostication by unnamed publications and “computer specialists”:
Computers are expensive for teaching, and they will not become a major force in education for some time. But apparently they are here to stay. One educational publication predicted that “another generation may well bring many parents who cannot recall classwork without them.” And a computer specialist went even farther. He said, “… I predict that computers will soon play as significant and universal a role in schools as books do today.”
About Matt Novak
Matt Novak is the author of the Paleofuture blog, which can now be found on Gizmodo.
The book sets out to examine possibilities of the future of Homo sapiens. The premise outlines that during the 21st century, humanity is likely to make a significant attempt to gain happiness, immortality, and God-like powers. Throughout the book, Harari openly speculates various ways that this ambition might be realised in the future based on the past and present. 
Homo sapiens conquers the world Edit
- The first part of the book explores the relationship between humans and other animals, exploring what led to the former's dominance.
Homo sapiens gives meaning to the world Edit
- Since the language revolution some 70,000 years ago, humans have lived within an "intersubjective reality", such as countries, borders, religion, money and companies, all created to enable large-scale, flexible cooperation between different individual human beings. Humanity is separated from other animals by humans' ability to believe in these intersubjective constructs that exist only in the human mind and are given force through collective belief.
- Humankind's immense ability to give meaning to its actions and thoughts is what has enabled its many achievements.
- Harari argues that humanism is a form of religion that worships humankind instead of a god. It puts humankind and its desires as a top priority in the world, in which humans themselves are framed as the dominant beings. Humanists believe that ethics and values are derived internally within each individual, rather than from an external source. During the 21st century, Harari believes that humanism may push humans to search for immortality, happiness, and power.
Homo sapiens loses control Edit
- Technological developments have threatened the continued ability of humans to give meaning to their lives Harari suggests the possilibity of the replacement of humankind with the super-man, or "homo deus" (human god) endowed with abilities such as eternal life. 
- The last chapter suggests the possibility that humans are algorithms, and as such Homo sapiens may not be dominant in a universe where big data becomes a paradigm.
- The book closes with the following question addressed to the reader:
"What will happen to society, politics and daily life when non-conscious but highly intelligent algorithms know us better than we know ourselves?" 
- Time magazine listed Homo Deus as one of its top ten non-fiction books of 2017. 
- Wellcome longlisted Homo Deus for their 2017 Book Prize. 
Homo Deus was reviewed in The New York Times,   The Guardian,   The Economist,  The New Yorker,  NPR,  Financial Times,  and Times Higher Education  published articles and reviews about the book. The review aggregator website Book Marks reported that 43% of critics gave the book a "rave" review, whilst the rest of the critics expressed either "positive" (29%) or "mixed" (29%) impressions, based on a sample of seven reviews. 
Writing in The Guardian, David Runciman praised the book's originality and style, although he suggested that it lacked empathy for Homo sapiens. The review points out that "Harari cares about the fate of animals in a human world but he writes about the prospects for Homo sapiens in a data-driven world with a lofty insouciance." Runciman nonetheless gave the book a generally positive review. 
In a mixed review, The Economist called Homo Deus "a glib work, full of corner-cutting sleights of hand and unsatisfactory generalisations" and stated that "Mr Harari has a tendency towards scientific name-dropping—words like biotech, nanotechnology and artificial intelligence abound—but he rarely engages with these topics in any serious way." 
Writing in the Journal of Evolution and Technology, Allan McCay has challenged Harari's claims about human algorithmic agency. 
Steve Aoki's song "Homo Deus" on the album Neon Future IV is named after the book and includes Harari's narration of the audiobook.
Future History Festival 2011
The Future History Festival is a culmination of ideas and experiences from the visionary minds of Luke Henriksen, Joe Wellman, and many others. Come be a part of this adventure into sight, sound, and mind. Be a part of future history.
This will be a three day camping and music event. We have assembled a wide range of musical styles to entice any flava from: acoustic, folk, rock, blues, bluegrass, gypsy-jazz, metal, punk, funk, reggae, hip-hop, jam, indie, and most genres of electronic. We will be creating an atmosphere that will unique to the Northeast Iowa area. With such a dynamic group this will be a weekend for the ages.
Located in the rolling hills of Northeast Iowa outside the village of Wadena, the Wellman family property provides a secluded and picturesque area to enlighten your consciousness. The physical address of the site is 6168 Grannis Rd., Fayette, IA if you want to map it out.
Video and pictures are up as the efforts to turn a quiet family home into a psychedelic wonderland get underway. Large tapestries, folk art, lighting, and interactive art displays will all contribute to making this an unbelievable experience. Keep checking back for the latest developments.
This year will be bigger and better than last year. With expanded lighting, improved stage and dance floor, and collaboration with Chilluminati, Paka Paka light show, TMS Audio & Graffitti, VJ Vibrance we will be able to make 2011 the year of sensory overload. Also we are expanding Sunday's events to include a full day of music! And for those with the time, a Thursday night House music appreciation pre-party with some special guests, vinyl sets, and VJ that are out-of-this-world good.
The Potential for a World Historical Transformation
The extraordinary thing about all The Inexorables coming together at the same time is that this could end up as much more than just a technology and economic boom, but more like a societal transformation. There’s actually an opportunity here to align all these driving forces and make great progress on solving the biggest challenges of our time. We might be able to turn the corner on climate change and mitigate many of the worst effects in time. We might be able to rebalance the global capitalist economy and move away from mounting inequalities. We might be able to resuscitate the liberal democracies of the West, making them more closely reflect the actual will of the people, and making them more effective in continually solving problems. And we can set ourselves up to deal with a century filled with more difficult pandemics. In fact, we can use today’s coronavirus crisis to jumpstart this whole transformation.
These kinds of big social transformations have happened at critical junctures in history before. Think of you today being able to go back to someone living in America in 1930, at the beginning of the Great Depression, in the midst of rising nationalism and extreme politics, and explaining to them what the next 40 years until 1970 would bring. How humans would invent mainframe computers, and atomic energy and plastics. How working people would benefit from things like the New Deal and the Great Society. How a prosperous and thriving middle class would soon inhabit new suburbs connected by a new interstate freeway system. How by the end of those 40 years we’d even land a man on the moon. That person back in 1930 would have thought that the story you told was impossible. Yet we all know now that all of it was true.
Hard to believe that we might be going through something similar today? Hard to see it? What if someone from the year 2100 came to you today and told you the similar story of our time? He would have the same historical perspective, the same distance in years. You talking with clarity about what happened from 1930 to 1970 would be exactly the same as him talking about the period from 2010 to 2050. That’s exactly what the stories in this series do. He lays out the remarkable story of how the people of our time solved the coronavirus crisis, drove another Long Boom, turned the corner on climate change, and made a much better world by 2050. He even explains how the people of our time laid the foundations for what came to be understood as a new civilization over the course of the entire 21st century. He makes the compelling case that The Transformation was our version of The Enlightenment.
Once you read that accompanying story you enter the final phase of the process of any positive scenario. Is it plausible? You have to determine whether you believe the scenario could even happen. Is it probable? Is there a reasonable chance something like this could play out over time? Do you believe 75 percent is more than likely? Better than a 50/50 chance?
Finally, is it preferable? Is the world laid out in that positive scenario one that you’d like to live in and even help bring about? If so, you shift from thinking of it as just a story and more like a plan, or a strategy. To be sure, it’s a first draft plan that can be improved in myriad ways. But it’s heading in the right direction, and largely right. The specific details almost certainly will turn out to be quite different in the years ahead. But it’s a good start to begin thinking differently about what now needs to be done.
Seeing is believing. Read the scenario that follows in the weeks ahead and then apply that age-old adage. Can you see the positive potential all around us? Can you see a new way forward? Do you believe The Transformation can happen? If so, what are you going to do to help it take off?
History of the Information Age
The home automation systems that are being developed and integrated into American domestic life today have a long history. The concept of a “home of the future” that carries out tasks for residents can be traced back to the pre-fabricated home ideal of the 1940s and 1950s. The hope for home automation has recently become a reality due to normalization of a digital lifestyle. Technologies and systems such as Amazon’s Alexa continue to broaden the extent to which Americans rely on technology in their homes to do and think for them.
20 th Century Visions of the Home of the Future
In the 1949 MGM cartoon, titled “The World of Tomorrow,” creator Tex Avery exaggerates the ideal of a futuristic home that was the talk of post-WWII America. This desire to reimagine the American home was the rise of consumerism, economic prosperity, and population after WWII. According to this video, the House of Tomorrow was “completely pre-fabricated and ready to set up.”Humidity control featured in Avery’s “House of Tomorrow” cartoon
The House was designed to fix any problem that a resident might have, from fixing the moisture level of the air to repairing the television. The house featured button-activated kitchen appliances, a refrigerator with a window (now a reality with Samsung’s Smart Refrigerator that includes a camera), and a device to answer a child’s endless questions.Device to answer questions, featured in Avery’s “House of Tomorrow” cartoon
This “House of Tomorrow” that Avery was poking fun at was centered on the idea for a hands-off home with devices that would make life easier, all personalized for the different family members living there. The “House of Tomorrow” was “built around the television set,” which required no antenna or confusing dials. This new TV would “dispose of lengthy commercials” its most “outstanding feature” was the “tremendous variety of programs available.” At the time, this concept may have seemed outlandish to Avery and merely an idea to use in a funny cartoon. After all, why would a home need all of these over-the-top devices and tools? Yet, now, this “House of Tomorrow” is becoming a reality.
Avery’s “House of Tomorrow” centered around the TV
While Avery’s cartoon was making fun of the concept of a technologically-driven home, many Americans liked the idea. The Army Navy Screen Magazine created films during World War Two, and featured a series in 1945 titled, “Tomorrow” to show soldiers what they would enjoy when they came back home. One such film centered on the new pre-fabricated house it included built-in waffle makers and rotisseries and plexiglass.
1945 Life Magazine modern kitchen, featuring a built-in rotisserie
According to the film, “these homes of tomorrow will spark with as many labor-saving devices as an advertising writer’s dream. Efficient and pleasant, they will be clean, well-lit, skillfully planned, easy to maintain.”
A sociologist writing in 1945 stated that the modern home “will no longer be a place for ‘doing things’” but for rest. It will be prefabricated and impersonal there is “relief in buying a model house” instead of being burdened by “the far-flung responsibilities involved” in making independent choices. In the 1940s, not only were modern homes supposed to be hands-free, but also thought-free in terms of planning.
The concept of a “home of the future” was not new in the 1940s and 1950s. The desire to fill one’s home with the newest technology to make life easier has always existed. The concept of a “smart home” is also not new. Just like in the 40s and 50s, the end goal today is to create a home that can carry out the needs of its residents in a hands-off manner.
Rosie, the robotic maid from the 1960s cartoon, The Jetsons
According to Cees Links, CEO of GreenPeak Technologies, “for decades, people were wondering whether [smart homes] would ever happen, and if so, what would trigger it.” Home automation is the sequel to the concept of “demotics,” or domestic robotics, popularized in The Jetsons and sci-fi movies from the 60s, where humans lived in a carefree, fully-automated environment amongst “docile appliances.”
Today’s Home of the Future
Today’s “smart home” is still under current development. The smart home is intended to create a “seamless ecosystem” and provide comfort for residents. The automated home of The Jetsons is slowly becoming a reality. Appliances have been created to serve the following functions: utilities (thermostats, air quality, electrical plugs, etc.), security (cameras, alarms, presence sensors, etc.), decoration (light systems), operation and maintenance of appliances (smart washing machines, refrigerators, boilers, etc.), communication and entertainment (TV, sound systems, gaming, etc.), housekeeping (waste, groceries), child care (cameras, night lights), personal security (personal alarm switches), and health care (scales, blood pressure monitors).Smart home thermostat system
Integration of Amazon Alexa into the home, powered by voice control, is akin to this Jetson-style automated home that was once a far-fetched, unrealistic concept. In reality, modern aspirations for the smart home are no different than those found in the show developers want the smart home to “predict the homeowner and serve almost as a personal assistant.” While Internet in the 20 th century was a way for computers to exchange information, the Internet has now “evolved to today’s continuous capability to connect…to socialize, to like and to be liked” it allows everyone to be connected regardless of location. Smart homes integrate such uses of the Internet and are meant to learn the normal patterns of a household.Amazon Echo speaker, with Alexa technology
Beyond other smart home appliances and technologies that allow the home to operate intuitively, Alexa goes a step further in providing instant information. While Samsung’s smart refrigerator allows residents to view its contents while away from home, the capabilities of Alexa go one step further. These systems can respond to questions in a matter of seconds, creating a smart home that, in combination with other smart appliances, is not only hands-off but is also truly “smart.” The smart home aims to allow consumers to not only carry out tasks without lifting a finger, but also learn new information without having to think for themselves.
Advertisement introducing Amazon’s Echo :
Development of the Smart Home
For many years, GE, Samsung, Amazon, LG, Google, Cisco, Bosch, and Whirlpool have been working on automation systems with appliances that connect to smart phones and to each other to create a home that “operates at the touch of a button.” Only recently did these devices become affordable to the general public. Due to their high prices, these technologies required additional growth and integration into daily life to stimulate demand and lower costs in order to reduce their “exclusivity.”
Various factors have allowed the home automation industry to flourish. First, consumers have adapted to a digital lifestyle, making them more open to the concept of digital homes. Next, large companies have entered the market, providing more options and better prices. Consumers have also used the Cloud and robotics within the home more and more. Lastly, energy management technology has been supported by efforts to “go green.” Additionally, improvements to the electrical grid, availability and mass adoption of internet and smartphones, and inexpensive wireless home networks have all contributed to the rise of smart appliances. Now, manufacturers are focusing more on getting technology to understand the behavior patterns of users and on appliance to appliance communication.
There are many benefits to the automated home, such as efficiency, saving on natural resources, increased freedom for the disabled and elderly, and increased resale value of the home. Yet, there are many downsides and risks. The first issue is a matter of powering these devices what will happen when the Internet or router is down? Another consequence of a wireless home is the issue of battery life for Wi-Fi devices. People are concerned most with privacy. Due to the “interconnected nature” of these systems, one product can become a risk for the whole system.The smart home is based on the interconnection of devices through Wi-Fi.
A 2010 Microsoft study listed four challenges to home automation: high cost of ownership, poor manageability, inflexibility, and difficulty achieving security. To avoid the issue of different systems that do not work together, customers would have to pay for a fully-integrated smart home operated by a single system. Customers also have to work complex systems on their own. And there is the risk of unauthorized use of personal information by companies or data thieves gaining access to data stores. There are many things that still need to be sorted out before the smart home becomes fully integrated on a large scale.
As this industry grows, investors are becoming more confident, and larger firms are entering the market. The goal is to allow customers to choose the devices they want and not be forced into a single manufacturer’s service in order for their appliances to function. The question of government regulation remains on the forefront to handle this issue.
Regardless of the rules that may be placed on smart home technology, the current trend of integration is moving toward full automation as people grow more reliant on having these devices in the home. The impact of the smart home on our society’s future will be determined by how we are using these technologies, because, after all, “computers and connectivity are just tools.” The main idea behind the smart home is to have devices carry out tasks for the residents, yet in the end the devices only have the power and potential that we give them.
The smart home is controlled through apps on smart phones to provide ease of use.
From vision for a hands-off, prefabricated home following World War Two to the idea of demotics during the 1960s, Americans have aspired to develop smart homes for decades. Only today has this become a possibility with Wi-Fi supported appliances and technologies that allow devices in the home to respond to normal conditions and allow home owners to control settings using smart phones. There is a lot of work left to be done with smart home technology to ensure that systems work smoothly and safely. Consumers are becoming more and more dependent on home automation. In combination with smart home appliances Amazon’s Alexa and similar technologies, are redefining the concept of a “smart home” that does more than carry out tasks for residents, but serves as a source of immediate information.
Tex Avery’s Cartoon from 1949:
Army-Navy Screen Magazine Video from 1945:
 Andrea Ryan, Gunnar Trumbell, and Peter Tufano, “A Brief Postward History of U.S. Consumer Finance,” Business History Review 85, no. 3 (2011): 468-470.
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 Avery, The World of Tomorrow, Film.
 U.S. National Archives, “Army-Navy Screen Magazine, No. 69, 1945,” YouTube video, 16:32, posted March 2014, accessed March 2019, https://youtu.be/OPXB8Z2iWK8.
 Svend Riemer, “The Family Home Prefabricated,” Marriage and Family Living 7, no. 1 (1945): 10.
 Cees Links, “After the Smart Phone: The Smart Home,” Appliance Design 5 (2016): 23.
 Darshan C. Khedekar et al., “Home Automation- A Fast Expanding Market,” Thunderbird International Business Review 59, no. 1 (2017): 84.
 Erinn Loucks, “The Smart Home Misnomer,” Kitchen & Bath Business 64, no. 8 (2017): 20.
 Links, “After the Smart Phone,” 22.
 Leah Pickett, “The Smart Home Revolution,” Appliance Design 63, no. 1 (2015): 17.
 Khedekar, “Home Automation,” 79.
 Pickett, “The Smart Home Revolution,” 18.
 Khedekar, “Home Automation,” 89.
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 Loucks, “The Smart Home Misnomer,” 20.
 Khedekar, “Home Automation,” 88.
 Links, “After the Smart Phone,” 23.
Sources of Images and Videos
Amazon Echo. “Introducing Echo Spot.” YouTube video, 1:41. Posted December 2017. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w60Lw7jdaHE.
Avery, Tex. The World of Tomorrow. Cartoon. United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, 1949. Film. Accessed February 2019. https://vimeo.com/32889552.
Holmes, Chris. “The Kitchen of Tomorrow (Life, 1943).” The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit. October 2012. Accessed February 2019. https://www.grayflannelsuit.net/blog/vintage-photo-wednesday-vol-14-the-kitchen-of-tomorrow-life-1943.
“Introduction of Amazon Echo.” YouTube video, 3:54. Posted September 2015. https://youtu.be/6V5I8HHFTNQ.
“The Jetsons: Domestic Efficiency.” YouTube video, 2:09. Posted May 2014. https://youtu.be/HsjgGOPanGI.
Avery, Tex. The World of Tomorrow. Cartoon. United States: Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer Studios, 1949. Film. Accessed February 2019. https://vimeo.com/32889552.
Khedekar, Darshan Chandrashekhar, Amelia Carrera Truco, Diego A. Oteyza, and Guillermo Florez Huertas. “Home Automation- A Fast Expanding Market.” Thunderbird International Business Review 59, no. 1 (2017): 79-91. Accessed March 2019. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/tie.21829.
Novak, Matt. “The House of the Future in 1945 Included a Rotisserie and Built-In Waffle Maker.” Paleofuture. November 2018. Accessed February 2019. https://paleofuture.gizmodo.com/the-house-of-the-future-in-1945-included-a-rotisserie-a-1830123272.
Riemer, Svend. “The Family Home Prefabricated.” Marriage and Family Living 7, no. 1 (1945): 9-11. Accessed March 2019. JSTOR. doi:10.2307/348989.